The Best Worst President Book PDF

The Best Worst President

  • Author : Mark Hannah
  • Publisher : HarperCollins
  • Release Date : 2016-06-28
  • Genre : Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 9780062443090

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The Best Worst President Book Description :

Political analyst and Democratic campaign veteran Mark Hannah and renowned New Yorker illustrator Bob Staake give Barack Obama the victory lap he deserves in this compendium that takes the president’s critics head-on and celebrates the president’s many underappreciated triumphs. Barack Obama’s election in 2008 was a watershed moment in American history that inspired supporters on the Left—and fired up enemies on the Right. Elected in the midst of multiple crises—a Wall Street meltdown that imperiled the global economy and American troops entangled in two foreign wars—Barack Obama’s presidency promised, from the start, to be one of the most consequential presidencies in modern American history. Although he stabilized the economy and restored America’s prestige on the global stage, President Obama has been denied the credit he deserves, receiving instead acidic commentary from political opponents such as former Vice President Dick Cheney, who declared that Obama was “the worst president in [his] lifetime”—an accusation that reflects the politics of resentment and recrimination that has come to characterize the president’s critics. In The Best "Worst President", Mark Hannah and New Yorker illustrator Bob Staake swiftly and systematically debunk conservative lies and disinformation meant to negate the president’s accomplishments and damage his reputation—baseless charges too often left unchallenged by the national media. The Best "Worst President" is a whip-smart takedown of these half-truths and hypocrisies, each refuted in a smart, witty, fact-based style. Hannah and Staake not only defend the president but showcase his administration’s most surprising and underappreciated triumphs—making clear he truly is the best “worst president” our nation has ever known.

Worst  President  Ever  Book PDF

Worst President Ever

  • Author : Robert Strauss
  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
  • Release Date : 2016-10-01
  • Genre : History
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 9781493024841

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Worst President Ever Book Description :

Worst. President. Ever. flips the great presidential biography on its head, offering an enlightening—and highly entertaining!—account of poor James Buchanan’s presidency to prove once and for all that, well, few leaders could have done worse. But author Robert Strauss does much more, leading readers out of Buchanan’s terrible term in office—meddling in the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision, exacerbating the Panic of 1857, helping foment the John Brown uprisings and “Bloody Kansas,” virtually inviting a half-dozen states to secede from the Union as a lame duck, and on and on—to explore with insight and humor his own obsession with presidents, and ultimately the entire notion of ranking our presidents. He guides us through the POTUS rating game of historians and others who have made their own Mount Rushmores—or Marianas Trenches!—of presidential achievement, showing why Buchanan easily loses to any of the others, but also offering insights into presidential history buffs like himself, the forgotten "lesser" presidential sites, sex and the presidency, the presidency itself, and how and why it can often take the best measures out of even the most dedicated men.

Africa  s Best and Worst Presidents Book PDF

Africa s Best and Worst Presidents

  • Author : Mhango, Nkwazi Nkuzi
  • Publisher : Langaa RPCIG
  • Release Date : 2016-10-15
  • Genre : Political Science
  • Pages : 378
  • ISBN : 9789956764723

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Africa s Best and Worst Presidents Book Description :

Africa’s Best and Worst Presidents seeks to deconstruct the current superstructure that colonialism created and maintains. It chastises and challenges Africans, academics in the main, to revisit and write a true history of Africa. Written by Africans themselves, such rewritten histories should aim to counter the counterfeit narratives which have proliferated, poisoned and diminished African sense of self and self-confidence. The history centred on African perspectives and experiences should go a long way in our quest to truly unfetter Africa from dependency, desolations and mismanagement. This book calls upon all Africans to stand up fearlessly and tirelessly to take on decadent and despotic regimes that have always held Africa at ransom as they get lessons from the best managers of state affairs on whose feats they must expand. The option to critique, cross-examine and dissect past African presidents and their excesses is aimed at giving the young and frustrated generations of Africans the intellectual resources they need to arm themselves in resolve and pursuit of Africa’s emancipation.

The Presidents Book PDF

The Presidents

  • Author : Brian Lamb
  • Publisher : Hachette UK
  • Release Date : 2019-04-23
  • Genre : Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN : 9781541774377

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The Presidents Book Description :

The complete rankings of our best -- and worst -- presidents, based on C-SPAN's much-cited Historians Surveys of Presidential Leadership. Over a period of decades, C-SPAN has surveyed leading historians on the best and worst of America's presidents across a variety of categories -- their ability to persuade the public, their leadership skills, their moral authority, and more. The crucible of the presidency has forged some of the very best and very worst leaders in our national history, along with everyone in between. Based on interviews conducted over the years with a variety of presidential biographers, this book provides not just a complete ranking of our presidents, but stories and analyses that capture the character of the men who held the office. From Abraham Lincoln's political savvy and rhetorical gifts to James Buchanan's indecisiveness, this book teaches much about what makes a great leader -- and what does not. As America looks ahead to our next election, this book offers perspective and criteria to help us choose our next leader wisely.

Donald Trump Jokes for Laughs Book PDF

Donald Trump Jokes for Laughs

  • Author : Joe Ruben
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2020-09-03
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 40
  • ISBN : 9798682430949

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Donald Trump Jokes for Laughs Book Description :

Get this book now and laugh whenever you need to relax your brain and feel good. This is the funniest book ever anyone can read about D. TrumpThis is the hilarious book of Donald Trump that you can always read over and over again for laughs. Note that the book's theme is centered at putting a smile on your face, and you will achieve that if you should read it (With an open mind). Are you feeling bored or stressed out after the day's work or you need a comic book to relax with? Then, this is the perfect book for you.With this book, you will be able to release endorphins, which is the hormone for laughter, happiness, and feeling good, and your stress hormone known as cortisol will be reduced. You can get the book as a gift for your loved ones.It is important to note that this book was written with no political motivation, and you can read it as long as you need something to make you feel good and relaxed.So, scroll up now, click on the "Buy with 1-click" button, and get started with laughing your ass out!

Presidents  Body Counts  The Twelve Worst and Four Best American Presidents Based on How Many Lived or Died Because of Their Actions Book PDF

Presidents Body Counts The Twelve Worst and Four Best American Presidents Based on How Many Lived or Died Because of Their Actions

  • Author : Al Carroll
  • Publisher : Lulu Press, Inc
  • Release Date : 2014-03-26
  • Genre : History
  • Pages : 231
  • ISBN : 9781304982162

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Presidents Body Counts The Twelve Worst and Four Best American Presidents Based on How Many Lived or Died Because of Their Actions Book Description :

Endorsed by the Thom Hartmann Show! Over 1000 downloads! Most rankings of presidents are popularity contests based on most recognized or best liked based on the political bias of the judges. This book abandons all partisan nonsense for the only ranking that matters a humanitarian one: Who were our best and worst presidents, based on how many lived or died because of their actions? Twelves presidents were our worst, guilty of crimes as serious as genocide or wars of aggression. Many ignored genocide or terrorism, or were so incompetent or blinded by politics, that sometimes millions died. Four presidents, each strongly despised by many, were actually our best presidents, saving millions of lives, defending human rights, and preventing wars. For more info on author see http://alcarroll.com

America s Presidents Book PDF

America s Presidents

  • Author : Jason Stahl
  • Publisher : Centennial Books
  • Release Date : 2020-09-22
  • Genre : Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 9781951274405

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America s Presidents Book Description :

In 2020, as we set our sights on another election, this book takes a look at all of the presidents of the United States—ranked from best to worst (the results may surprise you)—and their legacies, achievements and what we learned from their leadership. The book spans from 1789 when George Washington (spoiler alert: he's in the "Best Presidents" category) took the first-ever oath of office. Forty-four different men have sworn to “faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States” and what makes a great leader has been vision, conviction, and setting the nation on the right course. The Revolutionary War showed us we needed commanders who were going to fight for our freedom. The Civil War showed we needed leaders who were going to unite this nation. We looked to the President during hard times like the Great Depression, who were going to pick us up, dust us off and, with a steady hand, guide us to more promising times, which Franklin Delano Roosevelt did over his unprecedented four terms. Over the next many, many decades, and many wars and battles later, the President of the United States has shown they are the most powerful person on this planet. But they are also vulnerable. They’ve been targets of assassination attempts, and some, sadly, have been successful. Their transgressions have lead to scandals and impeachments. Presidents have been accused of abusing power and the advent of social media has ushered in a new form of communicating to constituents and young voters. In an election year when interest in Presidents is strong, join Centennial Books as we look to the nation's shared history to see what we can learn for today and the future.

Laughing with Obama Book PDF

Laughing with Obama

  • Author : M. Sweeney
  • Publisher : Castle Point Books
  • Release Date : 2019-09-03
  • Genre : Photography
  • Pages : 128
  • ISBN : 9781250234599

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Laughing with Obama Book Description :

Laugh along with a spirited American presidency with this sequel to the best-selling Hugs from Obama Laughing with Obama is a photographic tribute to President Barack Obama’s most clever, witty, and smile-worthy moments from his time in office and beyond. Re-experience the ear-to-ear grins and laughter that President Obama shared with the world, and reminisce about a presidential tenure that spread as much joy as it did optimism. Together with these uplifting photographs is a collection of the most humorous one-liners, playful jokes, and good-natured quips to come from the 44th President of the United States. Enjoy this fun celebration of a presidency that was defined not just by leadership, integrity, and hope, but also by warmth, charisma, and laughter.

The Seven Day Scholar  The Presidents Book PDF

The Seven Day Scholar The Presidents

  • Author : Dennis Gaffney
  • Publisher : Hachette UK
  • Release Date : 2012-02-07
  • Genre : History
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 9781401304140

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The Seven Day Scholar The Presidents Book Description :

"A bite of history a day, all year long . . ." Flawless storytelling, expert research, and intriguing, one-page essays make The Seven-Day Scholar: The Presidents perfect for history buffs. The Presidents addresses formative moments in the lives of the presidents, crucial political decisions, little-known facts, and insights into the intriguing individuals Americans have selected to lead our country. Each chapter includes seven related narrative entries-one for each day of the week. The book explores many fascinating facts and issues about the presidents, including: Did Washington really enjoy dancing? Why did President Jefferson avoid speaking in public? Why did Lincoln crack down on civil liberties? Why did Eisenhower fight against big defense budgets? How responsible was Reagan for the end of the Cold War? As well as covering each president, the book includes chapters on the Best and Worst Writers and Speakers; Most Controversial Elections; Scandals; Most Controversial Foreign Policy Decisions; The Peacemakers; First Ladies; The Best and Worst Presidents; and more. Entries also include follow-up resources where curious readers can learn more. Readers can sweep through the book from beginning to end, or use it as a reference book, periodically exploring topics and presidents in which they are interested.

My Christmas Gift to President Donald Trump Book PDF

My Christmas Gift to President Donald Trump

  • Author : T. Evans
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2018-10-02
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 26
  • ISBN : 1724195727

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My Christmas Gift to President Donald Trump Book Description :

Now you can send President Donald Trump a special Christmas card and gift. With the purchase of this unique journal you can send President Trump Season Greetings, Merry Christmas and share your personal thoughts on his presidency. The President needs to hear from you. President Trump needs to know why America is Great. He needs to know what you want him to do as President. He needs to know what he has done well, and not so well. He needs to know what needs changed and what should never be changed. Trump needs to know why he should stop tweeting. He needs to learn why he should respect women. President Trump needs to hear from you. This you chance to tell him how you feel. Be a part of this nationwide phenomenon this holiday season by sharing your unfiltered thoughts, opinions and beliefs without the bias of that "Fake or Real" news media. It does not matter who you are, how rich or poor you are. No matter what age, color, or religious affiliation you and your opinions count and are important. You can believe the President is God's greatest gift to the country or that he is the worst President ever. It does not matter if you are a supporter or not. By sharing your thoughts through this journal, it will be the best gift anyone could give a President as well as help him better understand our country.Journaling has been proven to relieve stress and tension. By writing your thoughts and sending this gift to President Trump you will feel better and at the same time help the nation heal the contentious divide we all face this holiday season. Our elected leaders need to hear from the citizens of this great country. It is important for all to participate in our democratic process, that's what makes the USA the best place to live in the world. Don't miss an opportunity to be part of this Grand Presidential Christmas Gift. This will be the biggest, the greatest, the most wonderful, stupendous, and powerful gift a nation has ever given to its President. The author will gift a p

The Worst President  The Story of James Buchanan Book PDF

The Worst President The Story of James Buchanan

  • Author : Garry Boulard
  • Publisher : iUniverse
  • Release Date : 2015-03-23
  • Genre : History
  • Pages : 202
  • ISBN : 9781491759622

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The Worst President The Story of James Buchanan Book Description :

Just 24 hours after former President James Buchanan died on June 1, 1868, the Chicago Tribune rejoiced: “This desolate old man has gone to his grave. No son or daughter is doomed to acknowledge an ancestry from him.” Nearly a century and a half later, in 2004, writer Christopher Buckley observed “It is probably just as well that James Buchanan was our only bachelor president. There are no descendants bracing every morning on opening the paper to find another heading announcing: ‘Buchanan Once Again Rated Worst President in History.’” How to explain such remarkably consistent historical views of the man who turned over a divided and demoralized country to Abraham Lincoln, the same man regarded through the decades by presidential scholars as the worst president in U.S. history? In this exploration of the presidency of James Buchanan, 1857-61, Garry Boulard revisits the 15th President and comes away with a stunning conclusion: Buchanan’s performance as the nation’s chief executive was even more deplorable and sordid than scholars generally know, making his status as the country’s worst president richly deserved. Boulard documents Buchanan’s failure to stand up to the slaveholding interests of the South, his indecisiveness in dealing with the secession movement, and his inability to provide leadership during the nation’s gravest constitutional crisis. Using the letters of Buchanan, as well as those of more than two dozen political leaders and thinkers of the time, Boulard presents a narrative of a timid and vacillating president whose drift and isolation opened the door to the Civil War. The author of The Expatriation of Franklin Pierce: The Story of a President and the Civil War (iUniverse, 2006), Boulard has reported for the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times and is a business writer for the Albuquerque-based Construction Reporter.

Presidents  Body Counts Book PDF

Presidents Body Counts

  • Author : Al Carroll
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2016
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 231
  • ISBN : 1536546968

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Presidents Body Counts Book Description :

peak No Evil About Presidents. So say most textbooks, journalists, commentators, and even some historians. Not in this book.An eye opening look at all the evil done by presidents, mass murder, incompetence, and terrorism, and a look at the noblest presidents also.How many of these do you know?-Two presidents ordered genocide, and another collaborated with genocide.-Four presidents ordered chemical warfare. One ordered atomic warfare.-Two presidents pardoned mass murderers, one a war criminal who murdered women and children, the other a terrorist who blew up a plane.-At least four presidents ignored genocide. In one case he could have saved up to over a million lives.-Two other presidents, besides Bush, ordered the mass torture of prisoners.-Two living presidents may face war crimes trials.-One president ran for office as the candidate for terrorists.-Two presidents were members of the KKK, one of them initiated in the White House.-One president was so incompetent, the White House was burned down by the enemy.-One president holds the record for the most invasions of Latin America. Two other presidents are the only ones in the last 120 years to not try to overthrow governments in Latin America.-Four presidents strongly despised by many were actually our greatest presidents.-America's greatest president may have saved over a million lives. -America's greatest ex-president saved even more lives than that. He also helped bring democracy to 25 nations.-America's second greatest president headed off genocide, and prevented two wars.-For almost every evil president, there were far better men who might have won the election.-For almost every good president, there were also far worse men (and women) who could have won.The most insightful and damning expose of the presidency you will ever see. By a historian and professor, lively and not pulling any punches.

Best Hikes Colorado s Indian Peaks Wilderness Book PDF

Best Hikes Colorado s Indian Peaks Wilderness

  • Author : Kent Dannen
  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
  • Release Date : 2017-06-01
  • Genre : Sports & Recreation
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 9781493027057

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Best Hikes Colorado s Indian Peaks Wilderness Book Description :

Best Hikes Indian Peaks Wilderness includes concise descriptions, full-color photos, GPS coordinates, and detailed maps to the best hikes in Indian Peaks Wilderness, from family-friend strolls to popular vistas to hillier wooded pathways. FalconGuides have set the standard for outdoor guidebooks for more than thirty-five years. Written by top experts, each guide invites you to experience the adventure and beauty of the outdoors. Look inside to find: Hikes suited to every ability Mile-by-mile directional cues Difficulty ratings, trail contacts, fees/permits, and best hiking seasons An index of hikes by category—from easy day hikes to waterfalls Invaluable trip-planning information, including local lodging and campgrounds Full-color photos throughout GPS coordinates

Presidential Leadership Book PDF

Presidential Leadership

  • Author : James Taranto
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release Date : 2004-07-30
  • Genre : History
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 9780743272261

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Presidential Leadership Book Description :

What makes a president great? Two of America's most prominent institutions, The Wall Street Journal and the Federalist Society, with the help of a wide array of eminent scholars, journalists, and political leaders, tackle this question in Presidential Leadership, the definitive ranking of our nation's chief executives. Based on a survey conducted by the Federalist Society and the Journal, Presidential Leadership examines presidential performance in this collection of provocative, enlightening essays written by a distinguished and diverse group of authors. The survey included seventy-eight liberal and conservative scholars, balancing the sample to reflect the political makeup of the U.S. population as a whole. It represents the first national survey in book form that provides a complete ranking of the presidents, along with an appendix that explains the methodology in detail and includes a wide range of valuable data. The result is an important, fresh, and engaging book, rating the presidents from Washington to Clinton and including an early assessment of George W. Bush's presidency by Journal editorial page editor Paul Gigot. Nearly fifty contributors provide their insights, with one essay on each president or on a broader issue of presidential leadership. Among them: • Forrest McDonald on Thomas Jefferson • Lynne Cheney on James Madison • Douglas Brinkley on James Polk • Christopher Buckley on James Buchanan • Jay Winik on Abraham Lincoln • John McCain on Theodore Roosevelt • Robert Dallek on Lyndon B. Johnson • Peggy Noonan on John F. Kennedy • Paul Johnson on Bill Clinton Their compelling essays, packed with fascinating and often surprising insights, analyze the best and worst of our commanders in chief. Presidential Leadership is the lively result, at once a valuable reference and a tremendously readable collection.

American Presidents   A Curious Look at a Unique Cohort Book PDF

American Presidents A Curious Look at a Unique Cohort

  • Author : V.S. Dharmakumar
  • Publisher : Notion Press
  • Release Date : 2019-09-05
  • Genre : Political Science
  • Pages : 628
  • ISBN : 9781645875574

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American Presidents A Curious Look at a Unique Cohort Book Description :

Believe it or not, an American president was arrested for running over a woman with his horse. He was not the only one to be arrested (two more were). George Washington preferred fox hunting with his dogs than going to church. Young Abraham Lincoln fell into a deep ditch and was saved by his dog. And after he was assassinated, his dog `Fido’ also was assassinated. Who was the President who worked as a bartender? And the one who once officially served as an executioner? The President of the United States is considered one of the world's most powerful people, leading the world’s only current superpower. His role includes being the commander-in-chief of the world's most expensive military with the largest nuclear arsenal with the nuclear button on his desk. This book is the result of over a decade of research and writing. It is a comprehensive compendium - a single-volume book, about the 44 men the entire world looked upon as the most powerful men in the world. 44 men who formed the 45 presidencies of the United States of America through 58 quadrennial presidential elections in the 230 years from 1789. This book covers the presidency of the successful liquor distributor and owner of a distillery George Washington, to the presidency of Donald Trump, the oldest, wealthiest man without any prior military or government service experience to ever assume the presidency.

Congressional Record Book PDF

Congressional Record

  • Author : United States. Congress
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1951
  • Genre : Law
  • Pages : 231
  • ISBN : IND:30000126169030

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Congressional Record Book Description :

The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record began publication in 1873. Debates for sessions prior to 1873 are recorded in The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States (1789-1824), the Register of Debates in Congress (1824-1837), and the Congressional Globe (1833-1873)

Hillary Is the Best Choice Book PDF

Hillary Is the Best Choice

  • Author : Benjamin Franklin L. Camins
  • Publisher : iUniverse
  • Release Date : 2007-11
  • Genre : History
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN : 9780595474530

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Hillary Is the Best Choice Book Description :

Hillary Is the Best Choice presents a more balanced view of politics. To start with, politics is neither good nor bad. It is neutral. It can either go good or bad depending on the politicians who are involved. For the first time in American presidential politics, for example, we have a woman candidate. In previous elections, when only men were presidential contenders, the tendency to play "dirty" was always a great temptation. With Hillary Clinton, Democratic Senator from New York and our country's former First Lady, as one of the current leading presidential aspirants, it is our hope that the old pattern of negativity will be replaced by a new pattern of political civility. Politics can be a clean activity. And elections, especially presidential ones, ought to be a matter of choosing the better of two goods (when an independent or third party candidate is running, it will be a matter of choosing the best of three).

Leadership and Legacy Book PDF

Leadership and Legacy

  • Author : Tom Lansford
  • Publisher : SUNY Press
  • Release Date : 2021-03-01
  • Genre : Political Science
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 9781438481883

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Leadership and Legacy Book Description :

Applies a variety of scholarly approaches to analyze the long-term impact of President Obama as a leader and policymaker. Historic, intriguing, and important in so many ways, the Obama presidency will be studied by scholars and students for years to come. With the rise in hyperpartisanship, legislative gridlock, political dysfunction, “fake news,” and other negative trends, it is imperative that academicians weigh in with a rigorous assessment of Obama’s presidency. This volume applies a variety of scholarly approaches to analyze the impact of Obama as a leader and policymaker. Scholars from disciplines such as political science, history, environmental science, economics, and communication come together to provide an interdisciplinary and wide-ranging appraisal of the president. Across the varied chapters, Obama’s leadership is central to understanding the success or failure of his policies and initiatives. The president’s decisions and actions are also assessed against the constraints and possibilities created by the modern US political system, rapid changes in technology and society, and shifting patterns in international relations. The result is a book that covers executive leadership, administration, domestic issues, foreign and national security policy, and more, to present a comprehensive review of the Obama legacy. Tom Lansford is Professor of Political Science at the University of Southern Mississippi. Douglas M. Brattebo is Associate Professor of Political Science and Director of the James A. Garfield Center for the Study of the Presidency at Hiram College. Robert P. Watson is Distinguished Professor of American History and Director of Project Civitas at Lynn University. Casey Maugh Funderburk is Vice Provost, Associate Professor of Communication Studies, Associate Director of Interdisciplinary Studies, and Director of the Speaking and Writing Center at the University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast.

The Paths of Glory Book PDF

The Paths of Glory

  • Author : Gautam Mukunda
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2011
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 435
  • ISBN : OCLC:727235827

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The Paths of Glory Book Description :

Practitioners, journalists, and historians believe that leaders play a crucial role in determining events. Social science theories, however, generally argue that leaders are unimportant. This dissertation proposes a two-stage theory of leader impact called Leader Filtration Theory (LFT). In the first stage, leaders are usually chosen from among a pool of candidates by a filtration process that homogenizes the pool. This makes actual leaders highly similar to those who almost got the job, rendering individuals fungible. Sometimes filtration is bypassed. When this occurs, leaders can gain power who are very different from potential alternates. In the second stage, leaders face constraints from within their organization and outside it. If these constraints are sufficiently weak an unfiltered leader can have a very large impact on outcomes. Such leaders are likely to display a high degree of variance in their performance. The theory is tested quantitatively using historians' rankings of U.S. Presidents. Unfiltered leaders should be disproportionately represented among the best and worst Presidents. LFT's prediction of higher variance in performance is very strongly supported by this test. The theory is also tested by examining three American Presidents and two British Prime Ministers. Jefferson, a Filtered President, made decisions with regards to the Louisiana Purchase very similar to those that alternative Presidents would have made. Lincoln and Wilson, by contrast, both Unfiltered Presidents, made decisions that were radically different from those that would have been made by alternative Presidents. Chamberlain, a Filtered Prime Minister (PM), made decisions with regards to appeasement of Germany before the Second World War very similar to those of alternative PMs. When his preferences diverged from those of potential alternate PMs, British policy followed the alternates' preferences, not his. When Churchill, an Unfiltered PM, gained office, his unique preferences de