Salt Sugar Fat Book PDF

Salt Sugar Fat

  • Author : Michael Moss
  • Publisher : Random House Trade Paperbacks
  • Release Date : 2014-02-18
  • Genre : Business & Economics
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN : 9780812982190

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Salt Sugar Fat Book Description :

NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY The Atlantic • The Huffington Post • Men’s Journal • MSN (U.K.) • Kirkus Reviews • Publishers Weekly #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • WINNER OF THE JAMES BEARD FOUNDATION AWARD FOR WRITING AND LITERATURE Every year, the average American eats thirty-three pounds of cheese and seventy pounds of sugar. Every day, we ingest 8,500 milligrams of salt, double the recommended amount, almost none of which comes from the shakers on our table. It comes from processed food, an industry that hauls in $1 trillion in annual sales. In Salt Sugar Fat, Pulitzer Prize–winning investigative reporter Michael Moss shows how we ended up here. Featuring examples from Kraft, Coca-Cola, Lunchables, Frito-Lay, Nestlé, Oreos, Capri Sun, and many more, Moss’s explosive, empowering narrative is grounded in meticulous, eye-opening research. He takes us into labs where scientists calculate the “bliss point” of sugary beverages, unearths marketing techniques taken straight from tobacco company playbooks, and talks to concerned insiders who make startling confessions. Just as millions of “heavy users” are addicted to salt, sugar, and fat, so too are the companies that peddle them. You will never look at a nutrition label the same way again. Praise for Salt Sugar Fat “[Michael] Moss has written a Fast Food Nation for the processed food industry. Burrowing deep inside the big food manufacturers, he discovered how junk food is formulated to make us eat more of it and, he argues persuasively, actually to addict us.”—Michael Pollan “If you had any doubt as to the food industry’s complicity in our obesity epidemic, it will evaporate when you read this book.”—The Washington Post “Vital reading for the discerning food consumer.”—The Wall Street Journal “The chilling story of how the food giants have seduced everyone in this country . . . Michael Moss understands a vital and terrifying truth: that we are not just eating

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat Book PDF

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat

  • Author : InstaRead Summaries Staff
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2016-08-31
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 38
  • ISBN : 1537420763

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Summary of Salt Sugar Fat Book Description :

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss | Includes Analysis Preview: Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss is a compelling nonfiction investigation into how corporate food manufacturers have come to rely on salt, sugar, and fat as the mainstays of processed and prepackaged food. The food industry in the United States has become intensely dependent on these three potentially harmful ingredients to achieve its massive profits. This reliance has contributed to myriad public health problems, such as rising incidence of diabetes and obesity. Food executives have sought to manipulate consumption and drive up revenue at the expense of their consumers' health. The market for processed foods is an extremely competitive o≠ the average grocery store carries tens of thousands of products, of which only a small percentage will remain on the shelf and produce modest sales by industry standards. To maintain an advantage against rival companies, food manufacturers must continually churn out products that consumers crave... PLEASE NOTE: This is key takeaways and analysis of the book and NOT the original book. Inside this Instaread Summary of Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss | Includes Analysis · Overview of the Book · Important People · Key Takeaways · Analysis of Key Takeaways About the Author With Instaread, you can get the key takeaways, summary and analysis of a book in 15 minutes. We read every chapter, identify the key takeaways and analyze them for your convenience. Visit our website at instaread.co.

Salt  Sugar  Fat Book PDF

Salt Sugar Fat

  • Author : Michael Moss
  • Publisher : Random House
  • Release Date : 2013-02-28
  • Genre : Business & Economics
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN : 9781448133871

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Salt Sugar Fat Book Description :

The No.1 New York Times Bestseller In China, for the first time, the people who weigh too much now outnumber those who weigh too little. In Mexico, the obesity rate has tripled in the past three decades. In the UK over 60 per cent of adults and 30 per cent of children are overweight, while the United States remains the most obese country in the world. We are hooked on salt, sugar and fat. These three simple ingredients are used by the major food companies to achieve the greatest allure for the lowest possible cost. Here, Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative reporter Michael Moss exposes the practices of some of the most recognisable (and profitable) companies and brands of the last half century. He takes us inside the labs where food scientists use cutting-edge technology to calculate the ‘bliss point’ of sugary drinks. He unearths marketing campaigns designed – in a technique adapted from the tobacco industry – to redirect concerns about the health risks of their products, and reveals how the makers of processed foods have chosen, time and again, to increase consumption and profits, while gambling with our health. Are you ready for the truth about what’s in your shopping basket?

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat Book PDF

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat

  • Author : Instaread
  • Publisher : Instaread
  • Release Date : 2016-08-31
  • Genre : Study Aids
  • Pages : 46
  • ISBN : 9781683784708

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Summary of Salt Sugar Fat Book Description :

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss | Includes Analysis Preview: Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss is a compelling nonfiction investigation into how corporate food manufacturers have come to rely on salt, sugar, and fat as the mainstays of processed and prepackaged food. The food industry in the United States has become intensely dependent on these three potentially harmful ingredients to achieve its massive profits. This reliance has contributed to myriad public health problems, such as rising incidence of diabetes and obesity. Food executives have sought to manipulate consumption and drive up revenue at the expense of their consumers’ health. The market for processed foods is an extremely competitive one; the average grocery store carries tens of thousands of products, of which only a small percentage will remain on the shelf and produce modest sales by industry standards. To maintain an advantage against rival companies, food manufacturers must continually churn out products that consumers crave… PLEASE NOTE: This is key takeaways and analysis of the book and NOT the original book. Inside this Instaread Summary of Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss | Includes Analysis · Overview of the Book · Important People · Key Takeaways · Analysis of Key Takeaways About the Author With Instaread, you can get the key takeaways, summary and analysis of a book in 15 minutes. We read every chapter, identify the key takeaways and analyze them for your convenience. Visit our website at instaread.co.

Study Guide Book PDF

Study Guide

  • Author : Supersummary
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2019-09-16
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 86
  • ISBN : 1693683806

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Study Guide Book Description :

SuperSummary, a modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, offers high-quality study guides for challenging works of literature. This 85-page guide for "Salt Sugar Fat" by Michael Moss includes detailed chapter summaries and analysis covering 14 chapters, as well as several more in-depth sections of expert-written literary analysis. Featured content includes commentary on major characters, 25 important quotes, essay topics, and key themes like Key Ingredients and Processed Foods as Engineering and Marketing Products.

Salt Sugar Fat  Defeat the Addictions Book PDF

Salt Sugar Fat Defeat the Addictions

  • Author : Peter Kornfeld
  • Publisher : Lulu Press, Inc
  • Release Date : 2014-07-21
  • Genre : Health & Fitness
  • Pages : 231
  • ISBN : 9781312310346

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Salt Sugar Fat Defeat the Addictions Book Description :

Processed foods go hand in hand with too much salt, sugar, and added fat in your diet. It's all about convenience foods that over time will add pounds to your waistline, and illness and disease to your life. This has to stop! Salt Sugar Fat: Defeat the Addictions by Peter Kornfeld educates you on the dangers of "Americanized" eating, and shows you why you need moderate amounts of natural salt, sugar, and fat in your daily diet. The Key??? MODERATION of course! Understanding the physical, social, mental, and emotional pressures that shape our unhealthy eating habits will enable you to use this book as a tool to break free of the processed food death grip and find happiness in eating the wholesome foods Mother Nature provides. Kornfeld shows you how to take action and commit to a plan that will help you gain control of your salt, sugar, fat intake for life. Let's get started!

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat Book PDF

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat

  • Author : Instaread Summaries
  • Publisher : Idreambooks
  • Release Date : 2016-08-25
  • Genre : Study Aids
  • Pages : 38
  • ISBN : 1683784561

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Summary of Salt Sugar Fat Book Description :

Summary of Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss - Includes Analysis Preview Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss is a compelling nonfiction investigation into how corporate food manufacturers have come to rely on salt, sugar, and fat as the mainstays of processed and prepackaged food. The food industry in the United States has become intensely dependent on these three potentially harmful ingredients to achieve its massive profits. This reliance has contributed to myriad public health problems, such as rising incidence of diabetes and obesity. Food executives have sought to manipulate consumption and drive up revenue at the expense of their consumers' health. The market for processed foods is an extremely competitive one; the average grocery store carries tens of thousands of products, of which only a small percentage will remain on the shelf and produce modest sales by industry standards. To maintain an advantage against rival companies, food manufacturers must continually churn out products that consumers crave... PLEASE NOTE: This is key takeaways and analysis of the book and NOT the original book. Inside this Instaread Summary of Salt Sugar Fat by Michael Moss - Includes Analysis Overview of the Book Important People Key Takeaways Analysis of Key Takeaways About the Author With Instaread, you can get the key takeaways, summary and analysis of a book in 15 minutes. We read every chapter, identify the key takeaways and analyze them for your convenience. Visit our website at instaread.co.

To Your Health  Book PDF

To Your Health

  • Author : West Haven Junior Woman's Club (West Haven, Conn.)
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1989*
  • Genre : Cooking, American
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : OCLC:28308640

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To Your Health Book Description :

Hooked Book PDF

Hooked

  • Author : Michael Moss
  • Publisher : Random House
  • Release Date : 2021-03-02
  • Genre : Business & Economics
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 9780812997309

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Hooked Book Description :

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • From the author of Salt Sugar Fat comes a “gripping” (The Wall Street Journal) exposé of how the processed food industry exploits our evolutionary instincts, the emotions we associate with food, and legal loopholes in their pursuit of profit over public health. “The processed food industry has managed to avoid being lumped in with Big Tobacco—which is why Michael Moss’s new book is so important.”—Charles Duhigg, author of The Power of Habit Everyone knows how hard it can be to maintain a healthy diet. But what if some of the decisions we make about what to eat are beyond our control? Is it possible that food is addictive, like drugs or alcohol? And to what extent does the food industry know, or care, about these vulnerabilities? In Hooked, Pulitzer Prize–winning investigative reporter Michael Moss sets out to answer these questions—and to find the true peril in our food. Moss uses the latest research on addiction to uncover what the scientific and medical communities—as well as food manufacturers—already know: that food, in some cases, is even more addictive than alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs. Our bodies are hardwired for sweets, so food giants have developed fifty-six types of sugar to add to their products, creating in us the expectation that everything should be cloying; we’ve evolved to prefer fast, convenient meals, hence our modern-day preference for ready-to-eat foods. Moss goes on to show how the processed food industry—including major companies like Nestlé, Mars, and Kellogg’s—has tried not only to evade this troubling discovery about the addictiveness of food but to actually exploit it. For instance, in response to recent dieting trends, food manufacturers have simply turned junk food into junk diets, filling grocery stores with “diet” foods that are hardly distinguishable from the products that got us into trouble in the first place. As obesity rates continue to climb, manufacturers are no

Salt  Fat  Acid  Heat Book PDF

Salt Fat Acid Heat

  • Author : Samin Nosrat
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release Date : 2017-04-25
  • Genre : Cooking
  • Pages : 469
  • ISBN : 9781476753836

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Salt Fat Acid Heat Book Description :

Whether you've never picked up a knife or you're an accomplished chef, there are only four basic factors that determine how good your food will taste. Salt, Fat, Acid, and Heat are the four cardinal directions of cooking, and they will guide you as you choose which ingredients to use and how to cook them, and they will tell you why last minute adjustments will ensure that food tastes exactly as it should. This book will change the way you think about cooking and eating, and help you find your bearings in any kitchen, with any ingredients, while cooking any meal. --

Hooked Book PDF

Hooked

  • Author : Michael Moss
  • Publisher : Random House
  • Release Date : 2021-03-04
  • Genre : Psychology
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 9780753551226

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Hooked Book Description :

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER From the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Salt Sugar Fat comes a "gripping" (The Wall Street Journal) exposé of how the processed food industry exploits our evolutionary instincts, the emotions we associate with food, and legal loopholes in their pursuit of profit over public health. "The processed food industry has managed to avoid being lumped in with Big Tobacco-which is why Michael Moss's new book is so important."-Charles Duhigg, author of The Power of Habit Everyone knows how hard it can be to maintain a healthy diet. But what if some of the decisions we make about what to eat are beyond our control? Is it possible that food is addictive, like drugs or alcohol? And to what extent does the food industry know, or care, about these vulnerabilities? In Hooked, Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative reporter Michael Moss sets out to answer these questions and to find the true peril in our food. Moss uses the latest research on addiction to uncover the shocking ways that food, in some cases, is even more addictive than alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs. Our bodies are hardwired for sweets, so food giants have developed fifty-six types of sugar to add to their products and ways to exploit our evolutionary preference for fast, ready-to-eat foods. Moss goes on to show how the processed food industry -- including major companies like Nestlé, Mars, and Kellogg's -- has not only tried to hide the addictiveness of food but to actually exploit it. As obesity rates continue to climb, manufacturers are now claiming to add ingredients that can effortlessly cure our compulsive eating habits. A gripping account of the legal battles, insidious marketing campaigns, and cutting-edge food science that have brought us to our current public health crisis, Hooked lays out all that the food industry is doing to exploit and deepen our addictions, and shows us why what we eat has never mattered more.

Salt Sugar Fat Book PDF

Salt Sugar Fat

  • Author : Alexandra Kastor
  • Publisher : A&s Publishing
  • Release Date : 2013-09-03
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 72
  • ISBN : 0615880738

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Salt Sugar Fat Book Description :

#1 AMAZON.COM BESTSELLING AUTHOR LAUNCH PROMO BONUS! As a thank you for all those who have supported Alexandra Kaster over the years, she has included a FREE USDA Guidelines Report with EVERY purchase of this book during its initial launch! The food industry pulls a lot of shady tactics in order to get their processed nonsense into your organic foods. This report will help you decode the tactics of Big Business in the grocery store! From The Back of the Book Another inspiring, life-altering book by bestselling author Alexandra Kastor. Are You Fed Up With The Lies? Are You Hooked on Processed Food? Are You Being Fooled at The Store? Do You Really Know What's In Your Food? Wait, Salt is Good For Me? I Don't Have Count Calories? Why Doesn't My Diet Work? Answered Within! All of these questions and more are addressed in full detail within Salt Sugar Fat Get the rarely-spoken-of secrets to living healthy not only today, but every day of your life! You WILL Be Surprised As To What You Find Out! Table of Contents The American Way -We Are Hooked on Cheap Instead of Good-to-Eat What Consumers Don't Know -Avoiding Garbage at the Grocery Store Science of Selling: We've Been Fooled -Avoiding The Lies What Makes Me Fat But Not You? (& Vice Versa) -Calorie Counting and Regulating Fat...Not What You Think -Carbohydrates, Your Worst Enemy Your Trusted Friends -Why Diets Don't Succeed -Elusive Benefits Time to Think Outside of the Box -Forgotten Food -Teach Your Children Well Following Through -We Believe Our Eyes and Ears Instead of Our Bodies -Re-engineering Your Mindset Success in the Grocery Store Is A Step Away! You KNOW you have no idea what's on that ingredients label! You're TIRED of being filled with the lies of Big Business! You're DONE with consuming dangerous, processed foods! It's Time for a Change! This book is your KEY to long lastinghealth reform! Act Today and Claim Your Bonus Before It;s Gone! Your bonus USDA Organic Guidelines report won't be available forever! It

Dietary Sugar  Salt and Fat in Human Health Book PDF

Dietary Sugar Salt and Fat in Human Health

  • Author : Harry G. Preuss
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2020-04
  • Genre : Health & Fitness
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN : 0128169184

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Dietary Sugar Salt and Fat in Human Health Book Description :

Divided into four main sections, Dietary Sugar, Salt and Fat in Human Health explores the biochemical, pharmacological and medicinal aspects related to the overindulgence of dietary salt, sugar, and fat, along with possible remedies. Beginning with a general overview, the text outlines aspects associated with advancing age and human physiology, such as different aspects of insulin resistance, the advancing age phenomenon, central fat accumulation and metabolic perturbations and the role of the modern Western diet and the influence of dietary sugar, salt, and fat, with particular focus on their relation to multiple biochemical pathophysiological pathways. The second section of the book focuses on the roles of dietary sugars and their correlation with the chronic disease epidemic, with an emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism and its biochemistry, GI absorption, the glycemic index and the influence of fructose. The historical background of dietary sugars is discussed alongside Atkin's hypothesis, and an overview of the correlation between dietary fibre and the glycemic index, including a chapter on sugar addiction. Section three contains an exhaustive review of the influence of dietary salt and its diverse mechanistic aspects, including salt-sensitive hypertension, contribution of two steroid receptor pathways, vascular NO, intrarenal RAAS system and angiotensin. The fourth section highlights the biochemistry of dietary saturated, polyunsaturated and trans fat and its influence on human health and various diseases, and further explores NAFLD and gender specific problems. Chapters in this section also investigate the benefits of the Mediterranean diet as well as myths related to cholesterol. Collected and carefully organized for researchers in nutrition, physiology, epidemiology, or sensory science, this book will also benefit general practitioners, surgeons, nurses, health professionals and practitioners, and students studying the role of diet in cardiometabolic disorde

Sugar Book PDF

Sugar

  • Author : James Walvin
  • Publisher : Hachette UK
  • Release Date : 2017-07-13
  • Genre : History
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 9781472138118

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Sugar Book Description :

An 'entertaining, informative and utterly depressing global history of an important commodity . . . By alerting readers to the ways that modernity's very origins are entangled with a seemingly benign and delicious substance, How Sugar Corrupted the World raises fundamental questions about our world.' Sven Beckert, the Laird Bell professor of American history at Harvard University and the author of Empire of Cotton: A Global History, in the New York Times 'A brilliant and thought-provoking history of sugar and its ironies' Bee Wilson, Wall Street Journal 'Shocking and revelatory . . . no other product has so changed the world, and no other book reveals the scale of its impact.' David Olusoga 'This study could not be more timely.' Laura Sandy, Lecturer in the History of Slavery, University of Liverpool The story of sugar, and of mankind's desire for sweetness in food and drink is a compelling, though confusing story. It is also an historical story. The story of mankind's love of sweetness - the need to consume honey, cane sugar, beet sugar and chemical sweeteners - has important historical origins. To take a simple example, two centuries ago, cane sugar was vital to the burgeoning European domestic and colonial economies. For all its recent origins, today's obesity epidemic - if that is what it is - did not emerge overnight, but instead evolved from a complexity of historical forces which stretch back centuries. We can only fully understand this modern problem, by coming to terms with its genesis and history: and we need to consider the historical relationship between society and sweetness over a long historical span. This book seeks to do just that: to tell the story of how the consumption of sugar - the addition of sugar to food and drink - became a fundamental and increasingly troublesome feature of modern life. Walvin's book is the heir to Sidney Mintz's Sweetness and Power, a brilliant sociological account, but now thirty years old. In addition, the problem of su

Consequence of Salt  Sugar and Fat Content Modifications in Foods on Children s Preference and Intake Book PDF

Consequence of Salt Sugar and Fat Content Modifications in Foods on Children s Preference and Intake

  • Author : Sofia Bouhlal
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2011
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 258
  • ISBN : OCLC:1019679809

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Consequence of Salt Sugar and Fat Content Modifications in Foods on Children s Preference and Intake Book Description :

Background: In France, the National Nutrition and Health Programme ("Programme National Nutrition Santé" or "PNNS") is in charge of implementing the recommendations aiming at reducing salt, sugar and fat quantities in foods. However, the extent to which this might impact children's food preferences and intake is limited. Objective: The present work aimed at understanding the impact of varying salt, sugar and fat variations in foods, on toddlers and children's food preferences and intake. Methods: Studies were conducted in toddlers' and children's natural eating environment (nursery and school canteen), at their usually scheduled lunch and/or snack times. Results: Concerning sucrose, the addition of a low amount seems enough to trigger intake; thus, sucrose can be reduced without affecting food preferences and intake. As far as fat is concerned, suppressing or adding butter did not have an immediate impact on toddlers' green beans or pasta intake. Besides, low-fat products seem to be well accepted by toddlers and adults. Concerning salt, its reduction seems more puzzling and should be considered cautiously. Our results highlighted dissociation between the direct positive effect of salt on food preferences and intake, and its role on learning. Conclusions: Food sensory qualities are important for eating behaviour. Although it seems that reductions of sugar and fat in foods are possible, thus helping to reduce energy intake, those concerning salt should be considered cautiously.

Dietary Sugar  Salt and Fat in Human Health Book PDF

Dietary Sugar Salt and Fat in Human Health

  • Author : Harry G. Preuss
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2020-03-06
  • Genre : Health & Fitness
  • Pages : 680
  • ISBN : 9780128169193

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Dietary Sugar Salt and Fat in Human Health Book Description :

Divided into four main sections, Dietary Sugar, Salt and Fat in Human Health explores the biochemical, pharmacological and medicinal aspects related to the overindulgence of dietary salt, sugar, and fat, along with possible remedies. Beginning with a general overview, the text outlines aspects associated with advancing age and human physiology, such as different aspects of insulin resistance, the advancing age phenomenon, central fat accumulation and metabolic perturbations and the role of the modern Western diet and the influence of dietary sugar, salt, and fat, with particular focus on their relation to multiple biochemical pathophysiological pathways. The second section of the book focuses on the roles of dietary sugars and their correlation with the chronic disease epidemic, with an emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism and its biochemistry, GI absorption, the glycemic index and the influence of fructose. The historical background of dietary sugars is discussed alongside Atkin’s hypothesis, and an overview of the correlation between dietary fibre and the glycemic index, including a chapter on sugar addiction. Section three contains an exhaustive review of the influence of dietary salt and its diverse mechanistic aspects, including salt-sensitive hypertension, contribution of two steroid receptor pathways, vascular NO, intrarenal RAAS system and angiotensin. The fourth section highlights the biochemistry of dietary saturated, polyunsaturated and trans fat and its influence on human health and various diseases, and further explores NAFLD and gender specific problems. Chapters in this section also investigate the benefits of the Mediterranean diet as well as myths related to cholesterol. Collected and carefully organized for researchers in nutrition, physiology, epidemiology, or sensory science, this book will also benefit general practitioners, surgeons, nurses, health professionals and practitioners, and students studying the role of diet in cardiometabolic disor

Salt  Fat and Sugar Reduction Book PDF

Salt Fat and Sugar Reduction

  • Author : Maurice O'Sullivan
  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release Date : 2020-03-12
  • Genre : Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 346
  • ISBN : 9780128226124

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Salt Fat and Sugar Reduction Book Description :

Salt, Fat and Sugar Reduction: Sensory Approaches for Nutritional Reformulation of Foods and Beverages explores salt, sugar, fat and the current scientific findings that link them to diseases. The sensory techniques that can be used for developing consumer appealing nutritional optimized products are also discussed, as are other aspects of shelf life and physicochemical analysis, consumer awareness of the negative nutritional impact of these ingredients, and taxes and other factors that are drivers for nutritional optimization. This book is ideal for undergraduate and postgraduate students and academics, food scientists, food and nutrition researchers, and those in the food and beverage industries. Provides a clear outline of current legislation on global ingredient taxes Demonstrates effective protocols, sensory, multivariate and physico-chemical for salt, fat and sugar reduction Outlines reduction protocols, with and without the use of replacer ingredients for salt, fat and sugar reduction Illustrates the full process chain, consumer to packaging, and the effects of reformulation by reduction of ingredients