- Author : Anonim
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1997
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 281
- ISBN : UOM:39015075104680
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From the conference: University of Michigan Symposium on Risk-Taking Behavior and Traffic Safety, 24-25 May, 1993, Ann Arbor, Mich.
This comprehensive 2nd edition covers the key issues that relate human behavior to traffic safety. In particular it covers the increasing roles that pedestrians and cyclists have in the traffic system; the role of infotainment in driver distraction; and the increasing role of driver assistance systems in changing the driver-vehicle interaction.
The focus of this book is to present the latest aspects in the area of human behavior and its relation to planning of an optimal traffic safety. The contributions from authors in various disciplines such as scientists, medical practitioners, administrators and practitioners from the car industry examine how road-user behavior can cause accidents and how decision-makers from various sectors of society may influence road users' behavior. The development of modern vehicles and new traffic systems requires more sophisticated behavior and technology. New medical technologies such as improved neuropsychologic methods and descriptive mapping of behavior with imaging techniques facilitate the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of human behavior. The increased knowledge of normal and pathologic behavior contributes to strenghten primary prevention with the goal of reducing traffic accidents.
In 1980, a group of scientists from national laboratories, universities, and other research organizations gathered informally in a series of meetings to consider the state of research on risks to health, safety, and the environment. Each scientist had conducted research on the subject. All felt that the traditional disciplines and professional societies to which they belonged were neither ade quate nor appropriate for addressing the extraordinarily complex problems of assessing the risks inherent in modern society. The con sensus of the group was that a new society was needed to address these problems in a scientific and objective way. From these initial meetings, the Society for Risk Analysis was formed The major aims of the Society for Risk Analysis, as stated in its constitution, are • to promote knowledge and understanding of risk analysis techniques and their applications; • to promote communication and interaction among those engaged in risk analysis; and • to disseminate risk analysis information and promote the advancement of all aspects of risk analysis. Members of the Society are drawn from a variety of disciplines, including the health sciences, engineering, the physical sciences, the humanities, and the behavioral and social sciences. An import ant function of the Society is the annual meeting, at which var ious aspects of risk analysis are discussed. The first annual meet ing, represented by this volume, was the International Workshop on the Analysis of Actual vs.
Despite being an accepted construct in traffic and transport psychology, the precise nature of behavioural adaptation, including its causes and consequences, has not yet been established within the road safety community. A comprehensive collection of recent literature, Behavioural Adaptation and Road Safety: Theory, Evidence, and Action explores behavioural adaptation in road users. It examines behavioural adaptation within the context of historical and theoretical perspectives, and puts forth tangible—and practical—solutions that can effectively address adverse behavioural adaptation to road safety interventions before it occurs. Edited by Christina Rudin-Brown and Samantha Jamson, with chapters authored by leading road safety experts in driver psychology and behaviour, the book introduces the concept of behavioural adaptation and details its more relevant issues. It reviews the definition of behavioural adaptation that was put forward by the OECD in 1990 and then puts this definition through its paces, identifying where it may be lacking and how it might be improved. This sets the context for the remaining chapters which take the OECD definition as their starting points. The book discusses the various theories and models of behavioural adaptation and more general theories of driver behaviour developed during the last half century. It provides examples of the "evidence" for behavioural adaptation—instances in which behavioural adaptation arose as a consequence of the introduction of safety countermeasures. The book then focuses on the internal, "human" element and considers countermeasures that might be used to limit the development of behavioural adaptation in various road user groups. The book concludes with practical tools and methodologies to address behavioural adaptation in research and design, and to limit the potential negative effects before they happen. Supplying easy-to-understand, accessible solutions that can be implemented early on in a road saf
Examine the Prevalence and Geography of Road CollisionsSpatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the bo
"Examines the state of knowledge of alcohol-impaired driving at the millennium. The review covers the entire spectrum of related research, from the nature of the societal problem created by alcohol-impaired driving on through the description and effects of programs that have addressed that problem. The review covers scientific literature published since 1990"--Technical report documentation page.
One of a 5-volume set, each covering a broad subject, which cumulates annually all citations that appeared during the year in: Highway safety literature. In present volume, annotated entries arranged under emergency services, injuries, investigations and records, and locations. No index.
This volume contains the papers and discussions from a Symposium on :'Hu man Behavior and Traffic Safety" held at the General Motors Research Labora tories on September 23-25, 1984. This Symposium was the twenty-ninth in an annual series sponsored by the Research Laboratories. Initiated in 1957, these symposia have as their objective the promotion of the interchange of knowledge among specialists from many allied disciplines in rapidly developing or chang ing areas of science or technology. Attendees characteristically represent the aca demic, government, and industrial institutions that are noted for their ongoing activities in the particular area of interest. of this Symposium was to focus on the role of human behavior The objective in traffic safety. In this regard, a clear distinction is drawn between, on the one hand, "human behavior," and on the other "human performance." Human per formance at the driving task, or what the driver can do, has been the subject of much research reported in the technical literature. Although clearly of some rel evance, questions of performance do not appear to be central to most traffic crashes. Of much more central importance is human behavior, or what the driver in fact does. This is much more difficult to determine, and is the subject of the Symposium.
Psychological theory and research have much to contribute to the knowledge and skill bases underlying effective policing. Much of the relevant information, however, is dispersed across a variety of different psychological and criminal justice/policing journals and seldom integrated for those applied psychologists interested in policing issues or for police policymakers/administrators and others working in the criminal justice area who are not familiar with the psychological literature. Designed to accommodate the needs of these different groups, this book addresses both operational policing issues and issues relevant to the improvement of organizational functioning by providing integrative reviews of psychological theory and research that deal with effective policing. It illustrates how the theory and research reviewed are relevant to specific policing practices. These include eyewitness testimony, conflict resolution, changing driver behavior, controlling criminal behavior, effective interviewing, and techniques of face reconstruction. The volume's readable style makes it accessible to a diverse audience including undergraduate and postgraduate students in forensic/organizational/applied psychology, criminal justice, and police science programs, and police administrators and policymakers. It will also interest psychologists whose primary focus includes policing and criminal justice issues. The book should draw attention to the often unrecognized and valuable contribution that mainstream psychology can make to the knowledge base underpinning a wide variety of policing practices.
This book aims to help the reader to understand what motivates people to engage in risk taking behavior, such as participating in traffic, sports, financial investments, or courtship. The consequences of risk taking may be positive, or result in accidents and injuries, especially in traffic. The wealth of studies and theories (about 1000 references) is used to offer a cohesive, holistic view of risk motivation. The risk motivation theory is a dynamic state-trait model incorporating physiological, emotional and cognitive components of risk perception, processing and planning. If a deficit exists between desired and perceived risk, risk compensation behavior results. A feedback loop provides new information for the next perception-motivation-behavior process. Assumptions were tested and support was found with 120 subjects in a longitudinal study. The concepts and findings are discussed in relation to psychological theories and their meaning for our daily lives.
Occupational Safety and Hygiene V contains selected contributions from the International Symposium on Occupational Safety and Hygiene (SHO 2017, 10-11 April 2017, Guimarães, Portugal). The contributions focus on a wide range of topics, including: - occupational safety - risk assessment - safety management - ergonomics - management systems - environmental ergonomics - physical environments - construction safety, and - human factors Occupational Safety and Hygiene V is mainly based on research carried out at universities and other research institutions, but also includes practical studies developed by OHS Practitioners within companies. Accordingly, this book will be a helpful text to get acquainted with the state-of-the-art in research in these domains, as well as with some practical tools and approaches that are currently used by OHS professionals worldwide.