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- Author : Diana L. Herbert
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1990
- Genre : Personality disorders
- Pages : 352
- ISBN : OCLC:24439202
The Effect of Individual Differences in Act Prototypicality Judgments on Trait behavior Correlation and Cross situational Consistency
- Author : Brian P. O'Connor
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1992
- Genre : Human behavior
- Pages : 11
- ISBN : OCLC:1050611237
"Seek simplicity and distrust it. " Alfred North Whitehead "It will become all too clear that an ability to see patterns in behavior, an ability that some might feel proud of, can lead more easily to a wrong description than a right one. " William T. Powers The goal of the theorist-the scholar-is to take a collection of observations of the world, and perceive order in them. This process necessarily imposes an artificial simplicity upon those observations. That is, specific observations are weighed differently from each other whenever a theoretical account is abstracted from raw experiences. Some observed events are misunderstood or distorted, others are seen as representing random fluctuations and are ignored, and yet others are viewed as centrally important. This abstraction and oversimplification of reality is inevitable in theory construction. Moreover, the abstracted vision builds upon itself. That is, as a structure begins to emerge from continued observation, the structure itself guides the search for new information. The result is a construction that is more elaborate than what existed before, but it still is usually simpler than reality. It is important for scholars to believe in the value of their task, and in the general correctness of the vision that guides their work. This commitment, and the hope of progress that follows from it, make it possible to continue even when the work is difficult and slow.
Originally published in 1981, this volume presents the domain of personality as a fuzzy set that includes features previously identified with cognitive and social psychology. Few of the individual contributions are centrally concerned with individual differences and cross-situational stability, but these traditional themes certainly appear in several of the chapters. The remaining chapters deal with the general processes mediating the interaction between the person and the social environment, filling out the fuzzy set of personality psychology. Part 1 seeks to locate contemporary trends in the cognitive psychology of personality against a backdrop of historical events. The chapters in Part 2 discuss some of the cognitive processes mediating social behaviour. Part 3 contains contributions concerned with the rules by which people make judgments about objects in the social world. The self, a dominant topic in personality theory and research, is treated extensively in Part 4. Although many of the chapters are explicitly concerned with the relations between cognition and action – after all, most human interaction takes the form of judgments and communication – the contributions in Part 5 make the links to overt behaviour. Finally, Part 6 offers two discussions of the previous contributions from the perspective of cognitive psychology.
This volume brings together leading researchers in a major new effort to bridge the historical gap between the domains of ability and personality. The result is a remarkable collection of chapters analyzing critical issues at the interface--style, structure, process, and context. Contributors address: * intelligence and its relation to temperament and character-hierarchical models of cognition and personality; judgmental data in personality research; and structural issues in ability and personality; * intelligence and conation-goal theories; the role of conation in the learning environment; motivation and arousal; * intelligence and style-stylistic preferences; the role of disposition; cognitive style and its measurement; test taking style; and * intelligence and personality in context-regularities of functioning; contextual effects in cultural variation; control and consistency; the concept of "successful intelligence."
This path-breaking book reviews psychological research on practical intelligence and describes its importance in everyday life. The authors reveal the importance of tacit knowledge--what we have learned from our own experience, through action. Although it has been seen as an indispensable element of expertise, intelligence researchers have found it difficult to quantify. Based on years of research, Dr. Sternberg and his colleagues have found that tacit knowledge can be quantified and can be taught. This volume thoroughly examines studies of practical intelligence in the United States and in many other parts of the world as well, and for varied occupations, such as management, military leadership, teaching, research, and sales.
Virtue as Social Intelligence: An Empirically Grounded Theory takes on the claims of philosophical situationism, the ethical theory that is skeptical about the possibility of human virtue. Influenced by social psychological studies, philosophical situationists argue that human personality is too fluid and fragmented to support a stable set of virtues. They claim that virtue cannot be grounded in empirical psychology. This book argues otherwise. Drawing on the work of psychologists Walter Mischel and Yuichi Shoda, Nancy E. Snow argues that the social psychological experiments that philosophical situationists rely on look at the wrong kinds of situations to test for behavioral consistency. Rather than looking at situations that are objectively similar, researchers need to compare situations that have similar meanings for the subject. When this is done, subjects exhibit behavioral consistencies that warrant the attribution of enduring traits, and virtues are a subset of these traits. Virtue can therefore be empirically grounded and virtue ethics has nothing to fear from philosophical situationism.
- Author : Philip C. Kendall
- Publisher : Academic Press
- Release Date : 2013-09-24
- Genre : Health & Fitness
- Pages : 326
- ISBN : 9781483265278
Advances in Cognitive–Behavioral Research and Therapy, Volume 2 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of cognitive–behavioral approaches to psychotherapy. This book presents the developments in the study of cognition, personality, learning, social interaction, and behavior therapy. Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of cognitive schemata and cognitive processing as significant theoretical concepts for cognitive–behavioral therapy. This text then provides an analysis of self-mastery and the role of self-schemata in processing therapeutic information. Other chapters provide clinical guidelines for helping clients in changing their self-view and behavior. This book discusses as well the increasing influential role of fundamental cognition and social cognition in cognitive–behavioral interventions. The final chapter deals with the applied developments in the treatment of performance anxiety. This book is a valuable resource for research and applied psychologists. Researchers and clinicians struggling with the interplay of behavior, cognition, and emotion will also find this book useful.
Published in the year 1981, Toward a Psychology of Situations is a valuable contribution to the field of Social Psychology.
Metaphors of Mind seeks to help readers understand human intelligence as viewed from a variety of standpoints, such as those of psychology, anthropology, computational science, sociology, and philosophy. Much of the present confusion surrounding the concept of intelligence stems from our having looked at it from these different standpoints without considering how they relate to each other or how they might be combined into a unified view that goes beyond the boundaries of a particular discipline. Readers of Metaphors of Mind will come away with a comprehensive understanding of the concept of intelligence and how ideas about it have evolved and are continuing to evolve.
Originally published in 1985, the various chapters in this volume give examples of research on all three aspects of text understanding – namely, structure, world knowledge and process. More than this, however, the research described represents a shift in emphasis from studying stories, which dominated the field in the late 1970s, to studying expository text. This focus on stories was probably due to the essential first step in any science of examining the simplest materials possible. However, the editors thought that it was time to shift the research focus from stories to expository text and this volume is their attempt to provide this transition.
The psychology of reading investigates the process by which readers extract visual information from written text and make sense of it. Psychology Library Editions: Psychology of Reading (11 Volumes) brings together as one set, or individual volumes, a small series of previously out-of-print titles, originally published between 1980 and 1995. The set includes topics such as dyslexia and the relationship between speech and reading.
Beyond I.Q.: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence contends that the influence of certain psychological factors upon intelligence is strong enough to be considered highly significant in the evaluation of I.Q. The triarchic theory of human intelligence, accordingly, reaches "beyond I.Q".
The study of the relationship between the person and the situation has had a long history in psychology. Many theories of personality are set on an interpersonal stage and many social phenomena are played out differently as the cast of characters change. At times the study of persons and situations has been contentious, however, recent interest in process models of personality and social interaction have focused on the ways people navigate, influence, and are influenced by their social worlds. Personality and Social Behavior contains a series of essays on topics where a transactional analysis of the person and situation has proved most fruitful. Contributions span the personality and social psychology spectrum and include such topics as new units in personality; neuroscience perspectives on interpersonal personality; social and interpersonal frameworks for understanding the self and self-esteem; and personality process analyses of romantic relationships, prejudice, health, and leadership. This volume provides essential reading for researchers with an interest in this core topic in social psychology and may also be used as a text on related upper-level courses.
- Author : Katherine Currie Isbister
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1998
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 238
- ISBN : STANFORD:36105019765580
Electronic Inspection Copy Available for instructors here This accessible introductory text covers core domains of variation in individual differences: the history, philosophy and methods used in individual differences psychology, personality, intellect, affect and the self. It provides concise and focused coverage of the central concepts, research and debates in this key area, while developing students' higher level skills. Activities help readers build the underpinning generic critical thinking and transferable skills they need to become independent learners, and to meet the requirements of their programme of study.
ALOIS ANGLEITNER and JERRY S. WIGGINS The personality questionnaire has been with us for more than 60 years. It has been, and still is, the most popular method of personality assessment and it no doubt will continue to be so. The method has been sharply criticized since its inception (e. g. , Allport, 1921; Watson, 1933; Ellis, 1946; Janke, 1973), and this criticism is also likely to continue. The long-standing indifference of test con structors to criticisms of their craft is brought home by noting the similarities between objections raised many years ago and those that are offered today (Gynther & Green, 1982). Within this context, one might well ask why a book on personality questionnaires should appear at this time. Despite the centrality of the personality questionnaire to personality as sessment, there are, to our knowledge, no recent books on the general topic of personality questionnaires. There are of course books on specific instru ments (e. g. , Dahlstrom, Welsh & Dahlstrom, 1972, 1975), books on interpre tation of specific instruments (e. g. , Comrey, 1980), and books on specific is sues such as response styles (e. g. , Block, 1965). Although not specifically focused on personality questionnaires, Bass and Berg's (1959) Objective Ap proaches to Personality Assessment dealt with a number of issues that are cen tral to questionnaires.