Measuring Road Safety Using Surrogate Events provides researchers and practitioners with the tools they need to quickly and effectively measure traffic safety. As traditional crash-based safety analyses are being undermined by today’s growing use of intelligent vehicular and road safety technologies, crash surrogates--or near misses--can be more effectively used to measure the future risk of crashes. This book advances the idea of using these near-crash techniques to deliver quicker and more adequate measurements of safety. It explores the relationships between traffic conflicts and crashes using an extrapolation of observed events rather than post-crash data, which is significantly slower to obtain. Readers will find sound estimation methods based on rigorous scientific principles, offering compelling new tools to better equip researchers to understand road safety and its factors. Consolidates the latest updates/ideas from disparate places into a single resource Establishes a consistent use of key terms, definitions and concepts to help codify this emerging field Contains numerous application-oriented case studies throughout Includes learning aids, such as chapter objectives, a glossary, and links to data used in examples
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Defining and Applying Surrogate Safety Measures and Behavioural Indicators Through Site based Observations
- Author : Tim De Ceunynck
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 2017
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 157
- ISBN : 9089130586
- Author : Winnie V. Mitullah
- Publisher : Taylor & Francis
- Release Date : 2017-07-14
- Genre : Science
- Pages : 240
- ISBN : 9781317086987
What challenges do pedestrians and cyclists face in cities of the developing world? What opportunities do these cities have to provide for walking and cycling? Based on in-depth research conducted in Cape Town (South Africa), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Nairobi (Kenya), this book explores these questions by presenting work on walking and cycling travel behaviour, the status of road safety in these cities, as well as an analysis of the infrastructure for walking and cycling, and the workings of the institutions responsible for planning for these modes. The book also presents case studies relating to particular opportunities and challenges, such as the development and evaluation of ‘walking bus’ interventions, and the opportunities micro-simulation of pedestrian interventions offers within a data-scarce environment. Non-motorized Transport Integration into Urban Transport Planning in Africa demonstrates that transport and urban planning remains situated in a logic of automobile-dependent transport planning and global city development. This logic of practice does not pay adequate attention to walking and cycling. It argues that a significant shift in both policy as well as political commitment is needed so as to prioritize walking and cycling as strategies for sustainable transport policy in urban Africa. This book will be a key text for practitioners and policy makers working in planning, transport policy and urban development in Africa, as well as students and scholars of African studies, development studies, urban geography, transport studies and sustainable development.
This book increases the level of knowledge on road safety contexts, issues and challenges; shares what can currently be done to address the variety of issues; and points to what needs to be done to make further gains in road safety.
In recent years, considerable advances have been made in our knowledge and understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, there has been an explosion of information regarding genetic contributions to the etiology of PD and an increased awareness of the importance of the non-motor features of the disease. Theories regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of PD have also been refined, and new treatment modalities and advances implemented. Reflecting these changes, this second edition features new chapters devoted to genetic aspects of PD, non-motor features of the disease, and aspects of the pathophysiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of PD.
This book comprises select proceedings of the National Conference on Recent Advances in Traffic Engineering (RATE 2018) with technical papers on the themes of traffic operation control and management, traffic safety and vulnerable road users, and sustainable transportation. It covers a wide range of topics, including advanced traffic data collection methods, big data analysis, mix-traffic characterization and modelling, travel time reliability, scenario of pedestrian and non-motorised vehicles (NMVs) traffic, regional traffic growth modelling, and applications of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in traffic management. The contents of this book offer up-to-date and practical knowledge on different aspects of traffic engineering, which is useful for students, researchers as well as practitioners.
This book gathers the latest research, innovations, and applications in the field of civil engineering, as presented by leading national and international academics, researchers, engineers, and postgraduate students at the AWAM International Conference on Civil Engineering 2019 (AICCE’19), held in Penang, Malaysia on August 21-22, 2019. The book covers highly diverse topics in the main fields of civil engineering, including structural and earthquake engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, highway and transportation engineering, water resources engineering, and geomatic and construction management. In line with the conference theme, “Transforming the Nation for a Sustainable Tomorrow”, which relates to the United Nations’ 17 Global Goals for Sustainable Development, it highlights important elements in the planning and development stages to establish design standards beneficial to the environment and its surroundings. The contributions introduce numerous exciting ideas that spur novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaborations between various specialists in the field of civil engineering.
"The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a resource that provides safety knowledge and tools in a useful form to facilitate improved decision making based on safety performance. The focus of the HSM is to provide quantitative information for decision making. The HSM assembles currently available information and methodologies on measuring, estimating and evaluating roadways in terms of crash frequency (number of crashes per year) and crash severity (level of injuries due to crashes). The HSM presents tools and methodologies for consideration of 'safety' across the range of highway activities: planning, programming, project development, construction, operations, and maintenance. The purpose of this is to convey present knowledge regarding highway safety information for use by a broad array of transportation professionals"--P. xxiii.
Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan A guide for addressing aggressive driving collisions
- Author : Timothy R. Neuman
- Publisher : Transportation Research Board
- Release Date : 2003
- Genre : Aggressive driving
- Pages : 14
- ISBN : 9780309068055
- Author : Yi Qi
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 2012
- Genre : Right-turn lanes
- Pages : 100
- ISBN : NWU:35556042365973
Right-turn lanes provide space for the deceleration and storage of right-turn vehicles, and separate turning vehicles from through movements. Dual right-turn lanes are increasingly used at urban intersections primarily for two reasons: (1) to accommodate high right-turn demands and avoid turn-pocket overflows, and/or (2) to prevent right-turn vehicles that exit from a nearby upstream freeway off-ramp (on the left of the roadway) from abruptly changing too many lanes toward the right-turn lane at the intersection. In addition, a number of other factors may affect the decisions on the installation of dual right-turn lanes. However, warrants for dual right lane installation are almost non-existent, leaving traffic engineers to rely on engineering judgment. This research aims to develop warrants for installation of dual right-turn lanes at signalized intersections. Both the operational and safety benefits/costs were analyzed by surveying traffic engineers and by conducting traffic simulation-based analysis. Microscopic traffic simulation model, VISSIM, was used to quantify the operation benefits and Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM) developed by Siemens was used to analyze the safety gains due to installation of dual right-turn lanes.
This book is based on the work of the YEEES Research Centre, an international network of scientists from partner universities in Germany, Mozambique, Namibia and South Africa. It presents inter- and transdisciplinary research that explores different ways of understanding resilience, an essential characteristic for systems, organizations and people – providing them with strength in the face of attacks and challenges, and both enabling and fostering constant adaptation and improvement. Building resilience to face today’s ever-changing societal and environmental realities requires unbiased research activities that transcend the borders of countries and academic disciplines alike. The research addressed in this book, thus, is multidisciplinary and includes contributions to areas such as sustainable agriculture, entrepreneurial ecosystems, and smart communities, as well as groundbreaking work on skills development and ICT education. Highlighting the variety of research activities and their outcomes, this book offers a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners in the fields of sustainable resilience development.
- Author : Robert P. Loce
- Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
- Release Date : 2017-03-20
- Genre : Technology & Engineering
- Pages : 432
- ISBN : 9781118971642
Acts as single source reference providing readers with an overview of how computer vision can contribute to the different applications in the field of road transportation This book presents a survey of computer vision techniques related to three key broad problems in the roadway transportation domain: safety, efficiency, and law enforcement. The individual chapters present significant applications within those problem domains, each presented in a tutorial manner, describing the motivation for and benefits of the application, and a description of the state of the art. Key features: Surveys the applications of computer vision techniques to road transportation system for the purposes of improving safety and efficiency and to assist law enforcement. Offers a timely discussion as computer vision is reaching a point of being useful in the field of transportation systems. Available as an enhanced eBook with video demonstrations to further explain the concepts discussed in the book, as well as links to publically available software and data sets for testing and algorithm development. The book will benefit the many researchers, engineers and practitioners of computer vision, digital imaging, automotive and civil engineering working in intelligent transportation systems. Given the breadth of topics covered, the text will present the reader with new and yet unconceived possibilities for application within their communities.
First published in 1986, this landmark text is the definitive guide to clinical trials, written by one of the leading experts in the field. This fully-updated second edition continues to be the most authoritative reference text on randomized clinical trials. It contains a wealth of practical information on the design, conduct, and analysis of both single center and multicenter trials. No other book on clinical trials offers as much detail on such issues as sample size calculation, stratification and randomization, data systems design, development of consent forms, publication policies, preparation of funding requests, and reporting procedures. While the basics of design, conduct, and analysis of clinical trials remain the same, there have been significant changes since the first edition of Clinical Trials was published two decades ago. In this new edition, the author discusses the refinements and improvements made to methods and procedures, changes in the policies and guidelines underlying trials, as well as requirements for registration of trials. He also discusses current practices for data sharing, for gender representation, for treatment effects monitoring, and for ethical standards of clinical trials. The importance of the randomized controlled trial has grown significantly over time and they are now the cornerstone of all evidence-based medicine. Still rich in tables, checklists, charts, and other resources for the trialist, the second edition of Clinical Trials is an indispensable reference for clinicians, biostaticians, epidemiologists, and anyone involved in the design and implementation of a clinical trial.
- Author : Donald L. Fisher
- Publisher : CRC Press
- Release Date : 2011-04-25
- Genre : Technology & Engineering
- Pages : 752
- ISBN : 1420061011
Effective use of driving simulators requires considerable technical and methodological skill along with considerable background knowledge. Acquiring the requisite knowledge and skills can be extraordinarily time consuming, yet there has been no single convenient and comprehensive source of information on the driving simulation research being conducted around the world. A how-to-do-it resource for researchers and professionals, Handbook of Driving Simulation for Engineering, Medicine, and Psychology brings together discussions of technical issues in driving simulation with broad areas in which driving simulation is now playing a role. The chapters explore technical considerations, methodological issues, special and impaired populations, evaluation of in-vehicle and nomadic devices, and infrastructure evaluations. It examines hardware and software selection, visual database and scenario development, independent subject variables and dependent vehicle, environmental, and psychological variables, statistical and biostatistical analysis, different types of drivers, existing and future key-in vehicle devises, and validation of research. A compilation of the research from more than 100 of the world's top thinkers and practitioners, the book covers basic and advanced technical topics and provides a comprehensive review of the issues related to driving simulation. It describes literally hundreds of different simulation scenarios, provides color photographs of those scenarios, and makes available select videos of the scenarios on an accompanying web site, all of which should prove essential for seasoned researchers and for individuals new to driving simulation.
- Author : National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. Committee for the Strategic Highway Research Program 2: Implementation
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 2009
- Genre : Technology & Engineering
- Pages : 169
- ISBN : UCBK:C100743984
"(SHRP 2): Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life explores promising results expected from the SHRP 2 research and provides recommendations on how they could be most effectively implemented. The committee that developed the report believes that the widespread implementation of products developed by SHRP 2 is critical in order to address the nation's roadway safety, renewal, reliability, and capacity issues." -- provided by publisher.
- Author : Elżbieta Macioszek
- Publisher : Springer Nature
- Release Date : 2021
- Genre : Computational intelligence
- Pages : 193
- ISBN : 9783030717087
This book presents many valuable research methods useful in conducting research in modern urban transportation systems and networks. The knowledge base in practical examples, as well as the decision support methods described in this book, is of interest to people who face the challenge of searching for solutions to the problems of contemporary transport networks and systems on a daily basis. The book is therefore addressed to local authorities related to the planning and development of strategies for selected areas with regard to transport (both in the urban and regional dimensions) and to representatives of business and industry, as people directly involved in the implementation of urban transportation systems and networks solutions. The methods contained in individual chapters of the book allow to look at a given problem in an advanced way and facilitate the selection of the appropriate strategy (e.g., in relation to the air quality in considering the impact of the atmospheric emission from the urban road traffic, the role of incentive programs in promoting the purchase of electric cars, life-cycle costing decision-making methodology and urban intersection design, but also in assessing the impact of the socio-financial conditions on the bike-sharing system operation and its implementation in medium-sized cities, etc.). In turn, due to the new approach to theoretical models (including comparison methods of driving errors in a single-lane and multi-lane roundabouts, methods of parking measurements, methods of ensuring the technical readiness of transport companies fleet due to the region's capabilities as well as speed-related surrogate measures of road safety based on floating car data), the book is also of interest to scientists and researchers carrying out research in this area.
In recognition of the importance of road safety as a major health issue, the World Health Organization has declared 2011-2021 the Decade of Safety Action. Several countries in Europe, North America, and Asia have been successful in reducing fatalities and injuries due to road traffic crashes. However, many low-income countries continue to experience high rates of traffic fatalities and injuries. Transport Planning and Traffic Safety: Making Cities, Roads, and Vehicles Safer offers a source book for road safety training courses as well as an introductory textbook for graduate-level courses on road safety taught in engineering institutes. It brings together the international experiences and lessons learned from countries which have been successful in reducing traffic crashes and their applicability in low-income countries. The content is based on lectures delivered during an international course on transportation planning and traffic safety, sponsored annually by the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. The book is interdisciplinary and aimed at professionals—traffic and road engineers, vehicle designers, law enforcers, and transport planners. The authors examine trends in performance of OECD countries and highlight the public health and systems approach of traffic safety with the vulnerable road user in focus. Topics include land use (transportation planning, mobility, and safety), safety education and legislation, accident analysis, road safety research, human tolerance to injury, vehicle design, safety in construction zones, safety in urban areas, traffic calming, public transportation, safety laws and policies, and pre-hospital care of the injured.