If the Oceans Were Ink Book PDF

If the Oceans Were Ink

  • Author : Carla Power
  • Publisher : Holt Paperbacks
  • Release Date : 2015-04-07
  • Genre : Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 9780805098242

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If the Oceans Were Ink Book Description :

PULITZER PRIZE FINALIST • NATIONAL BOOK AWARD FINALIST • Hailed by The Washington Post as “mandatory reading,” and praised by Fareed Zakaria as “intelligent, compassionate, and revealing,” a powerful journey to help bridge one of the greatest divides shaping our world today. If the Oceans Were Ink is Carla Power's eye-opening story of how she and her longtime friend Sheikh Mohammad Akram Nadwi found a way to confront ugly stereotypes and persistent misperceptions that were cleaving their communities. Their friendship-between a secular American and a madrasa-trained sheikh-had always seemed unlikely, but now they were frustrated and bewildered by the battles being fought in their names. Both knew that a close look at the Quran would reveal a faith that preached peace and not mass murder; respect for women and not oppression. And so they embarked on a yearlong journey through the controversial text. A journalist who grew up in the Midwest and the Middle East, Power offers her unique vantage point on the Quran's most provocative verses as she debates with Akram at cafes, family gatherings, and packed lecture halls, conversations filled with both good humor and powerful insights. Their story takes them to madrasas in India and pilgrimage sites in Mecca, as they encounter politicians and jihadis, feminist activists and conservative scholars. Armed with a new understanding of each other's worldviews, Power and Akram offer eye-opening perspectives, destroy long-held myths, and reveal startling connections between worlds that have seemed hopelessly divided for far too long. Praise for If the Oceans Were Ink “A vibrant tale of a friendship.... If the Oceans Were Ink is a welcome and nuanced look at Islam [and] goes a long way toward combating the dehumanizing stereotypes of Muslims that are all too common.... If the Oceans Were Ink should be mandatory reading for the 52 percent of Americans who admit to not knowing enough about Muslims.”—The Washington Post

The Qur an Revealed Book PDF

The Qur an Revealed

  • Author : Colin Turner
  • Publisher : ISD LLC
  • Release Date : 2013-12-31
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 643
  • ISBN : 9783940924902

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The Qur an Revealed Book Description :

The Qur'an Revealed is a landmark publication in the history of Islamic studies, providing for the first time a comprehensive critical analysis of Bedizuzzaman Said Nursi's 6000-page work of Quranic exegesis, The Epistles of Light. In discussing a wide range of themes, from Divine unity to causation, from love to spirituality, from prophethood to civilization and politics, Colin Turner invites the reader into Nursi's conceptual universe, presenting the teachings of arguably the Muslim world's most understudied theologian in a language that is accessible to both expert and interested layperson alike.

The Interpretation of The Meaning of The Holy Quran Volume 52   Surah Luqman  Surah As Sajdah Book PDF

The Interpretation of The Meaning of The Holy Quran Volume 52 Surah Luqman Surah As Sajdah

  • Author : Nasoha Bin Saabin
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date :
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 231
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX

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The Interpretation of The Meaning of The Holy Quran Volume 52 Surah Luqman Surah As Sajdah Book Description :

I have written many books and articles on various topics but since 2013, I have devoted myself fully in writing the interpretation of the Holy Quran in English and with the grace of Allah, I have completed the whole Quran on 29th October 2020 with 84 books. I believe there is a great need in the whole world for the correct interpretation of the Holy Quran to be written in English. Currently, there is a great misunderstanding about Islam among Muslims and non-Muslims globally. The misunderstanding of the meaning of the Holy Quran among Muslims will lead to the wrong practice of Islam which leads to the wrong actions of Muslims. The wrong actions of Muslims will lead to misunderstandings about Islam among Muslims and non-Muslims. The wrong actions of the Muslims have led to many miseries and wars among Muslims. The wrong actions of Muslims have also led to many wars and clashes between Muslims and non-Muslims. In order to avoid miseries, wars and clashes from taking place between the whole mankind in the whole world, the whole mankind in the whole world need to understand the true teaching of Islam. There is no other way for the whole mankind to understand the true teaching of Islam unless the whole mankind is able to read and understand the correct interpretation of the Holy Quran. The whole mankind is only able to read and understand the correct interpretation of the Holy Quran when it is written in the universal language of the world (English). For this very reason I have written the interpretation of the Holy Quran in English. Prof. Nasoha Bin Saabin

Islamic Images and Ideas Book PDF

Islamic Images and Ideas

  • Author : John Andrew Morrow
  • Publisher : McFarland
  • Release Date : 2013-11-11
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 9780786458486

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Islamic Images and Ideas Book Description :

These 24 studies on specific symbols, images and icons from the Muslim tradition are authored by scholars from around the world. Divided into four sections, the Divine, the Spiritual, the Physical, and the Societal, the work examines theological issues, such as divine unity, creation, wrath, and justice; spiritual subjects, such as the straight path, servitude, perfection, the jinn, intoxication, and the status of Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. Essays also explore the symbolism of physical elements such as water, trees, seas, ships, food, the male sexual organ, eyebrows, and camels; and the significance of more socially-centered subjects such as the center, ijtihad, governance, otherness, Ashura, and Arabic. Drawing from the Qur'an and Sunnah, these topics are all tackled with tact and respect from a position that appreciates exegetical diversity while remaining within the realm of unity.

Promises Fulfilled Book PDF

Promises Fulfilled

  • Author : Nabil I Hanna
  • Publisher : iUniverse
  • Release Date : 2006-04-01
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 234
  • ISBN : 9780595385652

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Promises Fulfilled Book Description :

"Promises Fulfilled" examines the promises made in both the Bible and the Qur'n concerning the coming of the Promised One. Author Nabil I. Hanna brings to the forefront significant topics that often arise when discussion turns to the primary Bah' claim-that Bah'u'llh fulfills the promises and prophecies of all religions with regard to the Promised One. The author also elaborates on additional subject matter that often accompanies these discussions such as: The Word of God The day of resurrection and judgment The definition and explanation of salvation The meaning of life and death Miracles, parables, and the ascension of Christ The seal of the Prophets The author introduces each chapter with clarifications and uses key verses from the Bible, Qur'n and Bah' Scriptures to underscore important themes. "Promises Fulfilled" can be used as a reference guide in study classes and interfaith readings or discussions. If you are looking for an opportunity to reflect, meditate, and compare Biblical, Qur'anic and Bah' teachings, then "Promises Fulfilled" will help you on your journey to spiritual enlightenment.

Certain Terms Relating to Islamic Observances  Their Meanings with Reference to Three Translations of the Qur  an and a Translation of Hadith Book PDF

Certain Terms Relating to Islamic Observances Their Meanings with Reference to Three Translations of the Qur an and a Translation of Hadith

  • Author : Bakri H. S. Al-Azzam
  • Publisher : Universal-Publishers
  • Release Date : 2008-05-16
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 231
  • ISBN : 9781599426686

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Certain Terms Relating to Islamic Observances Their Meanings with Reference to Three Translations of the Qur an and a Translation of Hadith Book Description :

This study aims to discuss a number of terms dealing with ibadat, 'religious observances' in Islam as represented in the Five Pillars of Islam, and other related deeds, from a translational perspective. The study will also include some terms denoting the

Qur  n Book PDF

Qur n

  • Author : Syed Zahoor Ahmad
  • Publisher : AuthorHouse
  • Release Date : 2015-11-30
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 246
  • ISBN : 9781504958196

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Qur n Book Description :

The Mujahidin, (Al-Qaeda & Taliban) yesteryears darlings who conferred a momentous favor on the United States and the West, are todays terrorists (which now includes ISIS fighters.) Is this volte-face a baptism of the remaking of the world order in the image of the West? Is the West provoking a clash of civilizations between the Christian and Islamic civilizations with the Christian churches in tandem, a crusade launched by President Bush, a born-again Christian sent by God on a special mission? In this ambience of conflict the Biblical quote Whoever is not with us is against us gains currency as the battle cry? On the Muslim front and in response, Wahabism, a fundamentalist creed that has strayed from the straight path of Islam, is rapidly gaining strength and is operating under different names. Wahabism provides the ideological support to them. They are the ones who are gearing themselves up to take on the world. We are aware of their capability. Their activities also portend disaster for mankind. In this confrontational atmosphere the writer seeks guidance from the Qurn, a Book of guidance for mankind. Out of the myriad aspects, sixteen aspects of relevance to the problems humanity is currently facing are chosen. In the process the author explodes the myths wound around ISRA, the night journey of the Prophet of Islam, Gabriel, heaven and hell, the Day of Judgment, mans final destiny etc. The Qurnic observations, injunctions, exhortations, etc. relating to (1) Qurn (2) Divine (3) Muhammad (P.B.U.H) (4) Ilm (Knowledge) (5) Other Faiths (6) Social Justice (7) Women (8) Jihad (9) Terrorism (10) Justice (11) History (12) Economics (13) Genesis and Evolution of Man (14) Environment (15) Creation of the Universes and (16) Freewill and Determinism are the aspects brought out in this book. To understand an important facet of todays geo-political reality and Islams guidance to mankind in these turbulent times, read this enlightening book.

Qur an  the Universal Message Guides Mankind to Ways of Peace and Safety Book PDF

Qur an the Universal Message Guides Mankind to Ways of Peace and Safety

  • Author : Syed Z. Ahmad
  • Publisher : Christian Faith Publishing, Inc.
  • Release Date : 2021-07-27
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN : 9781098083915

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Qur an the Universal Message Guides Mankind to Ways of Peace and Safety Book Description :

The Mujahidin (al-Qaeda and Taliban), yesteryear's darlings who, by dismembering the Soviet Union, conferred a momentous favor on the United States and the West, are today's terrorists (which now includes ISIS fighters). Is this volte-face a baptism of the remaking of the world order in the image of the West? Is the West provoking a clash of civilizations between the Christian and Islamic civilizations with the Christian churches in tandem, a crusade launched by President Bush, a born-again Christian sent by God on a special mission? In this ambiance of conflict, does the Biblical quote "Whoever is not with us is against us" gain currency as a battle cry? On the Muslim front and in response, Wahabism, a fundamentalist creed that has strayed from the straight path of Islam, is rapidly gaining strength and is operating under different names. Wahabism provides the ideological support to them. They are the ones who are gearing themselves up to take on the world. We are aware of their capability. Their activities also portend disaster for mankind. In this confrontational atmosphere, the writer seeks guidance from the Qur'an. Out of the myriad of aspects on which the Qur'an sheds light, sixteen aspects, relevant to the problems humanity, is facing are chosen. They are (1) the Qur'an, (2) divinity, (3) Muhammad (PBUH), (4) ilm (knowledge), (5) other faiths, (6) social justice, (7) women, (8) jihad, (9) terrorism, (10) justice, (11) history, (12) economics, (13) the genesis and evolution of man, (14) the environment, (15) the creation of the universes, and (16) free will and determinism are the aspects brought out in this book. In the process, the author explodes the myths wound by today's Muslim mullahs (priests) around Isra, the Night Journey of the Prophet of Islam, Gabriel, heaven and hell, the day of judgment, man's final destiny, etc. The post-9/11 period saw a flooding of books with anti-Islamic contents. This book also attempts to project the real Islam, the univers

Second Edition  the Attributes of God in the Monotheistic Faiths of Judeo Christian and Islamic Traditions Book PDF

Second Edition the Attributes of God in the Monotheistic Faiths of Judeo Christian and Islamic Traditions

  • Author : Husein Khimjee Ph.D.
  • Publisher : iUniverse
  • Release Date : 2018-08-08
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 210
  • ISBN : 9781532050121

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Second Edition the Attributes of God in the Monotheistic Faiths of Judeo Christian and Islamic Traditions Book Description :

This book is the Second Edition of the book first published in 2011. It is one of the first books of its kind in the market clearly explaining and expanding the Attributes of God in the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions. With the expansion of the book in its Second Edition, it also contains discussion of Prophets and Messengers and in particular discusses the status of Abraham in all the Three monotheistic traditions, The Jewish, Christian and Islamic traditions. This book is about God and our relationship with God. What is more interesting about the Second Edition is that it expands the possibility of more research on the concept of prophethood in the family of Abrahamic faiths. Further, it discusses the status of Abraham according to the theology of St. Paul comparing it briefly with Islam. This book discusses also the status of Jesus in the Jewish and in the Islamic traditions.

Islam Book PDF

Islam

  • Author : Osman Nuri Topbaş
  • Publisher : Osman Nuri Topbas
  • Release Date : 2003
  • Genre : Islam
  • Pages : 285
  • ISBN : 9789756736623

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Islam Book Description :

THE CORRECT TRADITIONS OF AL BUKHARI 1 4 VOL 4 Book PDF

THE CORRECT TRADITIONS OF AL BUKHARI 1 4 VOL 4

  • Author : MUOHAMMAD BEN ISMAIL AL BUKHARI
  • Publisher : Dar Al Kotob Al Ilmiyah دار الكتب العلمية
  • Release Date : 2007-01-01
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 992
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX

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THE CORRECT TRADITIONS OF AL BUKHARI 1 4 VOL 4 Book Description :

إن أصح كتاب بعد كتاب الله تعالى هو كتاب صحيح الإمام البخاري حيث التزم في نقل أحاديثه التي أوردها فيه أعلى درجات الصحة واشترط لنقلها شروطا خاصة التزم بها وتلقته الأمة بالقبول . وقد اعتمد فيه طريقة الكتب والأبواب وقد أتى على مختلف الكتب الفقهية إضافة إلى غي

Youth full Productions Book PDF

Youth full Productions

  • Author : Nancy Ares
  • Publisher : Peter Lang
  • Release Date : 2010
  • Genre : Education
  • Pages : 251
  • ISBN : 1433106329

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Youth full Productions Book Description :

The grounding concept of this book is that youth are active agents in creating cultural practices and social spaces. Drawing from disciplines including anthropology, sociology, education, and cultural studies, the chapters examine practices that youth who are members of traditionally marginalized groups develop through engagement in the varied contexts of their everyday lives. Each chapter treats communities' language, communication and interaction patterns, and culturally derived practices as valuable resources youth bring to the tasks and situations they negotiate across time and space. The combination of chapters that fall within traditions of social and cultural foundations with those that fall within disciplinary learning-focused approaches sets this book apart. Across the chapters, notions of youth as active agents in the production of knowledge, selves, and practice are illuminated by focusing on how youth participate in construction of assemblages of historically derived practices, evolving relations of power, discourses, and new social/cultural forms and practices. The book also includes the editor's responses to the two main sections of the work, a conversation-in-writing aimed at making explicit both what ties the chapters within the sections together and the broader implications of the combined and unique contributions.

Aspects of the Qura n Book PDF

Aspects of the Qura n

  • Author : Syed Zahoor Ahmad
  • Publisher : AuthorHouse
  • Release Date : 2009-01-01
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 418
  • ISBN : 9781434383907

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Aspects of the Qura n Book Description :

Islam today is a vastly misunderstood religion. The unfortunate events of 9/11 and subsequent similar events have cast Islam in a very negative light resulting in a tremendous upsurge in anti Islam utterances and writings. This problem is compounded by relative lack of suitable response from the majority of Muslims of the world, including the so called Muslim scholars( Ulema) in defending Islam. "The Aspects of Quran" is one humble attempt to clear some of the misconceptions surrounding Islam and present it in its true colors. The author has chosen nine important aspects of Islam which are currently the focus of Western attention and gathered the Quranic pronouncements on them in one place hence rendering them easily accessible and understandable. These aspects are: 1.Quran 2. God 3. Muhammed (Peace be Upon him) 4.Islam's relationship with other religions, especially Judaism and Christianity 5. Knowledge 6. Social Justice 7. Women 8. Jihad 9. Terrorism. Read the book to get some authoritative answers to your questions about Islam which as a religion places great emphasis on knowledge, social justice, mercy, humility, compassion and forgiveness, sense of community and brotherhood, and above all remembrance of God at all times.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz  16  Part 16  Book PDF

Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz 16 Part 16

  • Author : Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman
  • Publisher : MSA Publication Limited
  • Release Date : 2009-10-29
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 242
  • ISBN : 9781861797186

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Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz 16 Part 16 Book Description :

This is Tafsir Ibn Kathir Part 16 0f 30. This Part of the Qur'an covers Surah 18: Al-Kahf (The Cave), Verses 075-110, Surah 19: Maryam (Mary), Verses 001-098 and Surah 20: Ta-Ha (Ta-Ha), Verses 001-0135. The 30 Parts of this publication gather in one place all relevant information needed to make the Qur'an more understandable and easier to study. This publication provides the following: 1. The Arabic Text for those who are able to read the Arabic language2. Transliteration of the Arabic text for those who are unable to read the Arabic script. This will give them a sample of the sound of the original Arabic Qur'an, which they could not otherwise comprehend from reading the English meaning only.3. The meaning of the qur'an in English(translated by Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Ph.D. and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan)4. abridged Tafsir (Explanation) by Ibn Kathir (translated under the supervision of Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri) We hope that by doing this an ordinary English-speaker will be able to pick up a copy of this book and study and comprehend The Glorious Qur'an in a way that is acceptable to the understanding of the Rightly-guided Muslim Ummah (Community). Keywords:Tafsir Part 16: quran karim,holy quran english translation,quran sharif,download full quran,quran surah,how to read the quran,quran for kids,about quran,quran audio download,ibn kathir tafsir,download quran in english,quran translated in english,quran in english translation,quran english audio,online quran learning,translate to arabic,learn quran online,the holly quran,quran with english translation,quran teaching,quran in english and arabic,quran arabic text,quran arabic english,quran translation in english audio,koran karim

The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur an  Vol 6  Book PDF

The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur an Vol 6

  • Author : Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman
  • Publisher : MSA Publication Limited
  • Release Date : 2009-10-29
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 231
  • ISBN : 9781861796585

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The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur an Vol 6 Book Description :

This is the 2nd edition of volume 6 of the ten volumes of The Meaning And Explanation Of The Glorious Qur'an. The first edition of this book contained many formatting and typing errors. In this new edition, we have corrected all the errors found in the first edition. We have also re-arranged the structure of the book and added the full Arabic Text of the thirty Parts of the Qur'an. The reader is now able to read not only the meaning, the transliteration and the tafsir (explanation) of the Glorious Qur'an but also the full Arabic text as well. Our mission is to gather in one place, for the English-speaking public, all relevant information needed to make the Qur'an more understandable and easier to study. This book tries to do this by providing the following: 1. The Arabic Text for those who are able to read Arabic 2. Transliteration of the Arabic text for those who are unable to read the Arabic script. This will give them a sample of the sound of the Qur'an, which they could not otherwise comprehend from reading the English meaning. 3. The meaning of the qur'an (translated by Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Ph.D. and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan) 4. Background introductions by two famous Islamic scholars, Maududi and Ibn Kathir 5. Explanation (abridged Tafsir) by Ibn Kathir (translated by Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri) We hope that by doing this an ordinary English-speaker will be able to pick up a copy of this book and study and comprehend The Glorious Qur'an in a way that is acceptable to the understanding of the Rightly-guided Muslim Ummah (Community).

The Quran With Tafsir Ibn Kathir Part 16 of 30 Book PDF

The Quran With Tafsir Ibn Kathir Part 16 of 30

  • Author : Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman
  • Publisher : Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman
  • Release Date : 2018-07-01
  • Genre : Religion
  • Pages : 186
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX

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The Quran With Tafsir Ibn Kathir Part 16 of 30 Book Description :

This is The Quran With Tafsir Ibn Kathir Part 16 0f 30. This Part of the Qur'an covers Chapter 18: Al Kahf 075 To Chapter 20: Ta Ha 135. The 30 Parts of this publication gather in one place all relevant information needed to make the Qur'an more understandable and easier to study. This publication provides the following: 1. The Arabic Text for those who are able to read the Arabic language 2. Transliteration of the Arabic text for those who are unable to read the Arabic script. This will give them a sample of the sound of the original Arabic Qur'an, which they could not otherwise comprehend from reading the English meaning only 3. The meaning of the qur'an in English(translated by Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Ph.D. and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan) 4. abridged Tafsir (Explanation) by Ibn Kathir (translated under the supervision of Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri) We hope that by doing this an ordinary English-speaker will be able to pick up a copy of this book and study and comprehend The Glorious Qur'an in a way that is acceptable to the understanding of the Rightly-guided Muslim Ummah (Community)

The Nine Hundred Book PDF

The Nine Hundred

  • Author : Heather Dune Macadam
  • Publisher : Hachette UK
  • Release Date : 2020-01-23
  • Genre : History
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 9781529329339

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The Nine Hundred Book Description :

'Books such as this are essential: they remind modern readers of events that should never be forgotten' - Caroline Moorehead On March 25, 1942, nearly a thousand young, unmarried Jewish women boarded a train in Poprad, Slovakia. Filled with a sense of adventure and national pride, they left their parents' homes wearing their best clothes and confidently waving good-bye. Believing they were going to work in a factory for a few months, they were eager to report for government service. Instead, the young women-many of them teenagers-were sent to Auschwitz. Their government paid 500 Reichsmarks (about £160) apiece for the Nazis to take them as slave labour. Of those 999 innocent deportees, only a few would survive. The facts of the first official Jewish transport to Auschwitz are little known, yet profoundly relevant today. These were not resistance fighters or prisoners of war. There were no men among them. Sent to almost certain death, the young women were powerless and insignificant not only because they were Jewish-but also because they were female. Now, acclaimed author Heather Dune Macadam reveals their poignant stories, drawing on extensive interviews with survivors, and consulting with historians, witnesses, and relatives of those first deportees to create an important addition to Holocaust literature and women's history.

Baran e Rahmat   The Rain of Mercy Part 2 Book PDF

Baran e Rahmat The Rain of Mercy Part 2

  • Author : Khawaja Shammsuddin
  • Publisher : Lulu.com
  • Release Date : 2017-10-22
  • Genre : Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 700
  • ISBN : 9781326752279

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Baran e Rahmat The Rain of Mercy Part 2 Book Description :

Part 2 of Baran-e-Rahmat (Rain of Mercy) Seerat (Biography) of the Prophet of Islam by Khawaja Shammsuddin Azeemi. It discusses the role of man in the Cosmic Administration, the miracles performed by Seyedna Hazoor alaihis-salat was-sall

The Qur  an  morality and critical reason Book PDF

The Qur an morality and critical reason

  • Author : Muòhammad Shaòhråur
  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release Date : 2009
  • Genre : Social Science
  • Pages : 586
  • ISBN : 9789004171039

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The Qur an morality and critical reason Book Description :

This book presents the work and ideas of the Syrian writer Muhammad Shahrur to the English-speaking world. Shahrur is at the moment the most innovative intellectual thinker in the Arab Middle East. Often described as the a ~Martin Luther of Islam,a (TM) he offers a liberal, progressive reading of Islam that aims to counter the influences of religious fundamentalism and radical politics. Shahrura (TM)s innovative interpretation of the Qura (TM)an offers groundbreaking new ideas, based on his conviction that centuries of historical Islam, including scholarship in the traditional Islamic religious sciences, have obscured or even obliterated the Qura (TM)ana (TM)s progressive and revolutionary message. That message is one that has endured through each period of human history in which Islam has existed, encouraging Muslims to apply the most contemporary perspective available to interpret the Qura (TM)ana (TM)s meaning.