This book assesses theories of learning across all ages to construct a new model for analysing how humans learn.
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Mrs Gribbin invites you to join her as she explores the changing landscape of learning theories and their implications.
This book is about human abilities and the ways in which people acquire and extend them. It contains many useful facts about people's learning and the mental processes that make it possible. Chapter one looks at the kinds of events that create learning, and identifies some important general principles of human learning. Chapter two examines the capabilities that children gain in their early years. They acquire a number of basic capacities that they can draw upon throughout life. These include language, reading, and numerical abilities. The acceleration of early abilities is also considered. Chapter three raises a number of intriguing questions about abilities. What exactly are they? What are their most important charactersitics? How can different capabilities and items of knowledge become joined to one another? The answers are surprisingly different from what common sense predicts.; Chapter four Considers The Important Contributions Of Motivation. A Person Has To Have good reasons for engaging in learning activities. Motivation supplies incentives for doing whatever is necessary in order to make learning happen. Chapter five investigates more advanced attainments. It looks at the effects of practising and other ways in which individuals extend their expertise. The use of memory aids and learning techniques is examined. Other topics include the influence of intelligence, creativity, the possible roles of innate gifts and talents, and child prodigies and geniuses. The best way to apply discoveries concerning learning and the acquisition of abilities is to use them for our own daily activities. Chapter six addresses the question of how to learn and study more effectively. It introduces ways of reading more effectively, and gives advice on improving writing skills and studying for exams. The aim here is to help the reader to succeed better at gaining needed capabilities.
Reward and Punishment in Human Learning: Elements of a Behavior Theory provides a different approach to the study of reward and punishment, emphasizing what is learned when a response is rewarded and how does this differ from what is learned when a response is punished. This book discusses the distortions in impressions of success, accuracy in recall of reward and punishment, and determinants of outcome-recall. The role of open-task attitudes in motor learning, effects of isolated punishments, and structural isolation in the closed-task situation are also elaborated. This publication is intended for psychologists, but is also helpful to teachers, executives, prison officials, psychotherapists, and parents.
Human learning is studied in a variety of ways. Motor learning is often studied separately from verbal learning. Studies may delve into anatomy vs function, may view behavioral outcomes or look discretely at the molecular and cellular level of learning. All have merit but they are dispersed across a wide literature and rarely are the findings integrated and synthesized in a meaningful way. Human Learning: Biology, Brain, and Neuroscience synthesizes findings across these levels and types of learning and memory investigation. Divided into three sections, each section includes a discussion by the editors integrating themes and ideas that emerge across the chapters within each section. Section 1 discusses general topics in human learning and cognition research, including inhibition, short term and long term memory, verbal memory, memory disruption, and scheduling and learning. Section 2 discusses cognitive neuroscience aspects of human learning. Coverage here includes models, skill acquisition, declarative and non declarative memory, age effects on memory, and memory for emotional events. Section 3 focuses on human motor learning. This book is suitable for cognitive neuroscientists, cognitive psychologists, kinesthesiologists, and graduate courses in learning. * Synthesizes research from a variety of disciplines, levels, and content areas * Provides section discussions on common findings between chapters * Covers motor and verbal learning
- Author : Samuel How
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1792
- Genre : Bible
- Pages : 74
- ISBN : BL:A0021780437
The Sufficiency of the Spirit s Teaching Without Human Learning A Sermon Preached in 1639 Before John Goodwin Etc The Prefatory Note Signed C D the Postscript W Kyffen
- Author : Samuel How
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1826
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 60
- ISBN : BL:A0024930253
- Author : Francis WHITFELD
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1782
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 231
- ISBN : BL:A0021724377
Introduction to human learning and cognition; Elements of conditioning; Characteristics of verbal learning; Process in verbal learning; Transfer of training; memory; Concept learning; Perceptual learning; Language, thinking, and problems solving; Motor skills learning.
Learning from Demonstration (LfD) explores techniques for learning a task policy from examples provided by a human teacher. The field of LfD has grown into an extensive body of literature over the past 30 years, with a wide variety of approaches for encoding human demonstrations and modeling skills and tasks. Additionally, we have recently seen a focus on gathering data from non-expert human teachers (i.e., domain experts but not robotics experts). In this book, we provide an introduction to the field with a focus on the unique technical challenges associated with designing robots that learn from naive human teachers. We begin, in the introduction, with a unification of the various terminology seen in the literature as well as an outline of the design choices one has in designing an LfD system. Chapter 2 gives a brief survey of the psychology literature that provides insights from human social learning that are relevant to designing robotic social learners. Chapter 3 walks through an LfD interaction, surveying the design choices one makes and state of the art approaches in prior work. First, is the choice of input, how the human teacher interacts with the robot to provide demonstrations. Next, is the choice of modeling technique. Currently, there is a dichotomy in the field between approaches that model low-level motor skills and those that model high-level tasks composed of primitive actions. We devote a chapter to each of these. Chapter 7 is devoted to interactive and active learning approaches that allow the robot to refine an existing task model. And finally, Chapter 8 provides best practices for evaluation of LfD systems, with a focus on how to approach experiments with human subjects in this domain.
The fact that computers can do so much for students -- even write their papers -- creates a new incentive to ask questions about the diminishing human element in the teaching-learning process. When thirty-two commerce students submitted identical papers taken from the internet, there was a flurry of excitement about plagiarism in the local press, but not much interest in the teaching strategy that could have allowed this to happen. The human exchange between teacher and student -- once thought essential to the teaching-learning process -- has disappeared from the very structure of educational systems beyond the primary level. Where is the human element to be found in education today? In his signature book, Insight: A Study of Human Understanding, the Canadian philosopher-theologian, Bernard Lonergan (1904-1984) claims that human learning flourishes best when students experience their own minds at work asking questions and finding answers for themselves. As a long time student of Lonergan's work, I have mined his thought on human understanding to uncover a model of teaching and learning that suggests a new educational ideal for our times. This book is written out of my own desire to make accessible to readers the freedom and capacity of their own minds to learn what is real or true or valuable. It is my own attempt to contribute the human element to the educational system of our time by engaging students in their own learning process. It has become the story of students yielding to my desire to engage them in their own learning and suggesting that I write it down!
- Author : Michael Fielding
- Publisher : Routledge
- Release Date : 2016-04-14
- Genre : Education
- Pages : 144
- ISBN : 9781317602835
The educational writings of John Macmurray, one of the finest 20th century philosophers of his generation, have a special relevance for us today. In similar circumstances of international crisis he argued for the central importance of education addressing fundamental issues of human purpose - how we lead good lives together, the emphasis on wisdom rather than knowledge alone, the advancement of a truly democratic culture, and the overriding importance of community in human flourishing. This remarkable collection of articles from leading international scholars includes the hitherto unpublished John Macmurray lecture – Learning to be Human – and brings together invited contributions from a range of fields and disciplines (e.g. philosophy of education, moral philosophy, care ethics, history of education, theology, religious education, future studies and learning technologies) and a number of countries across the world (e.g. Australia, the UK and the USA). Countering overemphasis on technique and its typical separation from wider human purposes emblematic of much of our current malaise, this book asks what it might mean to take the education of persons seriously and how such a perspective helps us to form judgments about the nature and worth of contemporary education policy and practice. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Oxford Review of Education.
Active learning is now a form of learning that accompanies the knowledge evolution that challenges the learner to promote it, but also encourages him to investigate and become emotionally involved in the task. The great key to obtaining this behavior successfully depends, therefore, on the subject's involvement and ability to undertake, so that active learning becomes emotional entrepreneurial learning that generates new ideas and new forms of knowledge. From memorization, we move on to inquiry, from questioning to constructive participation, from hypostasis to problem-solving, from generalization to critical thinking. When we look at this book, we see real examples, concrete, and senses, from the most important act of human nature: learning!
With an evolutionary advancement of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, a rapid increase of data volumes and a significant improvement of computation powers, machine learning becomes hot in different applications. However, because of the nature of “black-box” in ML methods, ML still needs to be interpreted to link human and machine learning for transparency and user acceptance of delivered solutions. This edited book addresses such links from the perspectives of visualisation, explanation, trustworthiness and transparency. The book establishes the link between human and machine learning by exploring transparency in machine learning, visual explanation of ML processes, algorithmic explanation of ML models, human cognitive responses in ML-based decision making, human evaluation of machine learning and domain knowledge in transparent ML applications. This is the first book of its kind to systematically understand the current active research activities and outcomes related to human and machine learning. The book will not only inspire researchers to passionately develop new algorithms incorporating human for human-centred ML algorithms, resulting in the overall advancement of ML, but also help ML practitioners proactively use ML outputs for informative and trustworthy decision making. This book is intended for researchers and practitioners involved with machine learning and its applications. The book will especially benefit researchers in areas like artificial intelligence, decision support systems and human-computer interaction.
In this textbook the author takes as inspiration recent breakthroughs in game playing to explain how and why deep reinforcement learning works. In particular he shows why two-person games of tactics and strategy fascinate scientists, programmers, and game enthusiasts and unite them in a common goal: to create artificial intelligence (AI). After an introduction to the core concepts, environment, and communities of intelligence and games, the book is organized into chapters on reinforcement learning, heuristic planning, adaptive sampling, function approximation, and self-play. The author takes a hands-on approach throughout, with Python code examples and exercises that help the reader understand how AI learns to play. He also supports the main text with detailed pointers to online machine learning frameworks, technical details for AlphaGo, notes on how to play and program Go and chess, and a comprehensive bibliography. The content is class-tested and suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses on artificial intelligence and games. It's also appropriate for self-study by professionals engaged with applications of machine learning and with games development. Finally it's valuable for any reader engaged with the philosophical implications of artificial and general intelligence, games represent a modern Turing test of the power and limitations of AI.
This text celebrates the fourth Tsukuba International Conference on Memory (Tic4) held in January of 2003, by setting forth productive directions for memory researchers and human learning theorists around the world. It presents fascinating perspectives on progress, and future prospects for models, theories, and hypotheses authors developed, including several new, never published experimental results. Contributors include the winner of the 1997 U.S. Congressional Medal of Science--William K. Estes--who graced the text by penning the forward. The three full day presentations of Tic4 included presentations by 225 experts, represented by 73 universities from countries on four continents: Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America. Human Learning and Memory presents 11 chapters by invited speakers, and its appendices include titles of all papers accepted for Tic4 presentations, as well as a background introduction to Japanese cultures, relevant to Tic4 experiences. This book appeals to scholars, researchers, and teachers in the fields of human learning and memory, cognition, language learning, and educational psychology (theoretical, empirical, and applied dimensions). It can also be used as a textbook for both advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in these domains, either as required or recommended reading.
Both a serious academic text and a delightful story, this book offers a clear, readable look at a full range of learning theories from behavioral to cognitive. It also covers memory, motivation, connectionism (neural net models), and social learning and concludes with a comprehensive synthesis. Its most apparent strength is its easily accessible style, but its greatest value lies in the clarity of its concepts and its emphasis on practical applications. THEORIES OF HUMAN LEARNING is narrated by a Professor. But this Professor isn't just anyone. In fact, those familiar with previous editions may conclude that he is related to Kongor and Kro, two extraterrestrials who so successfully guided students through the first two editionsa -or to the Old Man or, later, the Old Woman who led readers through the next editions. Wise as he is, the Professor does the job even more effectively than his predecessors in this sixth edition of THEORIES OF HUMAN LEARNING: WHAT THE PROFESSOR SAID.