The incredible tale of how ambitious oil rivals Marcus Samuel, Jr., and Henri Deterding joined forces to topple the Standard Oil empire Marcus Samuel, Jr., is an unorthodox Jewish merchant trader. Henri Deterding is a take-no-prisoners oilman. In 1889, John D. Rockefeller is at the peak of his power. Having annihilated all competition and possessing near-total domination of the market, even the U.S. government is wary of challenging the great “anaconda” of Standard Oil. The Standard never loses—that is until Samuel and Deterding team up to form Royal Dutch Shell. A riveting account of ambition, oil, and greed, Breaking Rockefeller traces Samuel’s rise from outsider to the heights of the British aristocracy, Deterding’s conquest of America, and the collapse of Rockefeller’s monopoly. The beginning of the twentieth century is a time when vast fortunes were made and lost. Taking readers through the rough and tumble of East London’s streets, the twilight turmoil of czarist Russia, to the halls of the British Parliament, and right down Broadway in New York City, Peter Doran offers a richly detailed, fresh perspective on how Samuel and Deterding beat the world’s richest man at his own game.
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The history of criminal justice in the U.S. is often described as a pendulum, swinging back and forth between strict punishment and lenient rehabilitation. While this view is common wisdom, it is wrong. In Breaking the Pendulum, Philip Goodman, Joshua Page, and Michelle Phelps systematically debunk the pendulum perspective, showing that it distorts how and why criminal justice changes. The pendulum model blinds us to the blending of penal orientations, policies, and practices, as well as the struggle between actors that shapes laws, institutions, and how we think about crime, punishment, and related issues. Through a re-analysis of more than two hundred years of penal history, starting with the rise of penitentiaries in the 19th Century and ending with ongoing efforts to roll back mass incarceration, the authors offer an alternative approach to conceptualizing penal development. Their agonistic perspective posits that struggle is the motor force of criminal justice history. Punishment expands, contracts, and morphs because of contestation between real people in real contexts, not a mechanical -swing- of the pendulum. This alternative framework is far more accurate and empowering than metaphors that ignore or downplay the importance of struggle in shaping criminal justice. This clearly written, engaging book is an invaluable resource for teachers, students, and scholars seeking to understand the past, present, and future of American criminal justice. By demonstrating the central role of struggle in generating major transformations, Breaking the Pendulum encourages combatants to keep fighting to change the system.
Why has the integration of women into Congress been so slow? Is there a "political glass ceiling" for women? Although women use the same strategic calculations as men to decide when to run, the decision regarding where to run is something else. While redistricting has increasingly protected incumbents, it also has the unintended consequence of shaping the opportunities for female candidates. The political geography and socio-economic profile of districts that elect women differ substantially from districts that elect men. With data on over 10,000 elections and 30,000 candidates from 1916 to the present, Palmer and Simon explore how strategy and the power of incumbency affect women’s decisions to run for office. Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling is the most comprehensive analysis of women in congressional elections available. The Second Edition is fully updated to reflect the pivotal 2006 mid-term elections, including Nancy Pelosi’s rise to Speaker of the House, Hillary Clinton’s bid for the presidency, and a record number of women serving as committee chairs. Additionally, the authors have created a website, found at politicsandwomen.com, to highlight key features of the book and provide updates throughout the election cycle.
- Author : Matthew Whitaker Ph.D.
- Publisher : ABC-CLIO
- Release Date : 2011-03-09
- Genre : Social Science
- Pages : 1122
- ISBN : 9780313376436
This stunning collection of essays illuminates the lives and legacies of the most famous and powerful individuals, groups, and institutions in African American history. • 100 alphabetically arranged profiles, each accompanied by a photograph
In the first half of the twentieth century, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation helped to create and maintain a cultural and intellectual infrastructure in Canada that benefited key institutions such as University of Toronto, McGill University, the National Gallery, the Humanities Research Council of Canada, and the Canadian Social Science Research Council. Jeffrey Brison documents how American philanthropy facilitated the transformation from a private, localized system of cultural, intellectual, and academic patronage to a complex, nation-based system of incorporated patronage - a system in which the major patron was the federal state. His study calls into question our essentialistic notions of contrasting national identities and the now-mythologized juxtaposition of an American culture fueled by the free market with a Canadian one sustained by state support.
Protecting and promoting health is inherently a political endeavor that requires a sophisticated understanding of the distribution and use of power. Yet while the global nature of health is widely recognized, its political nature is less well understood. In recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of global health politics has emerged to demonstrate the interconnections of health and core political topics, including foreign and security policy, trade, economics, and development. Today a growing body of scholarship examines how the global health landscape has both shaped and been shaped by political actors and structures. The Oxford Handbook of Global Health Politics provides an authoritative overview and assessment of research on this important and complicated subject. The volume is motivated by two arguments. First, health is not simply a technical subject, requiring evidence-based solutions to real-world problems, but an arena of political contestation where norms, values, and interests also compete and collide. Second, globalization has fundamentally changed the nature of health politics in terms of the ideas, interests, and institutions involved. The volume comprises more than 30 chapters by leading experts in global health and politics. Each chaper provides an overview of the state of the art on a given theoretical perspective, major actor, or global health issue. The Handbook offers both an excellent introduction to scholars new to the field and also an invaluable teaching and research resource for experts seeking to understand global health politics and its future directions.
Introduction -- The end of the commodity super-cycle -- Binding carbon constraints -- An electric future -- The US: the lucky country -- The Middle East: more trouble to come -- Russia: blighted by the resource curse -- China: the end of the transition -- Europe: not as bad as it seems -- The gradual end of big oil -- Energy utilities: a broken model -- The new energy markets and the economics of the Internet -- Conclusion
This magisterial follow-up to The New Abolition, a Grawemeyer Award winner, tells the crucial second chapter in the black social gospel's history. The civil rights movement was one of the most searing developments in modern American history. It abounded with noble visions, resounded with magnificent rhetoric, and ended in nightmarish despair. It won a few legislative victories and had a profound impact on U.S. society, but failed to break white supremacy. The symbol of the movement, Martin Luther King Jr., soared so high that he tends to overwhelm anything associated with him. Yet the tradition that best describes him and other leaders of the civil rights movement has been strangely overlooked. In his latest book, Gary Dorrien continues to unearth the heyday and legacy of the black social gospel, a tradition with a shimmering history, a martyred central figure, and enduring relevance today. This part of the story centers around King and the mid-twentieth-century black church leaders who embraced the progressive, justice-oriented, internationalist social gospel from the beginning of their careers and fulfilled it, inspiring and leading America's greatest liberation movement.
- Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Rules and Administration
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1974
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 1398
- ISBN : UIUC:30112104083636
- Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1974
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 1411
- ISBN : UOM:39015082035331
The environmentalist describes how he created a successful tomato business as a teenager, worked at the USDA, and founded two non-profit organizations that have drawn attention to climate change and lagging agricultural productivity.
As OPEC has loosened its grip over the past ten years, the oil market has been rocked by wild price swings, the likes of which haven't been seen for eight decades. Crafting an engrossing journey from the gushing Pennsylvania oil fields of the 1860s to today's fraught and fractious Middle East, Crude Volatility explains how past periods of stability and volatility in oil prices help us understand the new boom-bust era. Oil's notorious volatility has always been considered a scourge afflicting not only the oil industry but also the broader economy and geopolitical landscape; Robert McNally makes sense of how oil became so central to our world and why it is subject to such extreme price fluctuations. Tracing a history marked by conflict, intrigue, and extreme uncertainty, McNally shows how—even from the oil industry's first years—wild and harmful price volatility prompted industry leaders and officials to undertake extraordinary efforts to stabilize oil prices by controlling production. Herculean market interventions—first, by Rockefeller's Standard Oil, then, by U.S. state regulators in partnership with major international oil companies, and, finally, by OPEC—succeeded to varying degrees in taming the beast. McNally, a veteran oil market and policy expert, explains the consequences of the ebbing of OPEC's power, debunking myths and offering recommendations—including mistakes to avoid—as we confront the unwelcome return of boom and bust oil prices.
- Author : Ute Frevert
- Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
- Release Date : 2016-01-06
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 173
- ISBN : 9782889196951
Despite significant progress in the global fight against malaria, this parasitic infection is still responsible for nearly 300 million clinical cases and more than half a million deaths each year, predominantly in African children less than 5 years of age. The infection starts when mosquitoes transmit small numbers of parasites into the skin. From here, the parasites travel with the bloodstream to the liver where they undergo an initial round of replication and maturation to the next developmental stage that infects red blood cells. A vaccine capable of blocking the clinically silent liver phase of the Plasmodium life cycle would prevent the subsequent symptomatic phase of this tropical disease, including its frequently fatal manifestations such as severe anemia, acute lung injury, and cerebral malaria. Parasitologists, immunologists, and vaccinologists have come to appreciate the complexity of the adaptive immune response against the liver stages of this deadly parasite. Lymphocytes play a central role in the elimination of Plasmodium infected hepatocytes, both in humans and animal models, but our understanding of the exact cellular interactions and molecular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite killing within the complex hepatic microenvironment of an immune host is still rudimentary. Nevertheless, recent collaborative efforts have led to promising vaccine approaches based on liver stages that have conferred sterile immunity in humans – the University of Oxford's Ad prime / MVA boost vaccine, the Naval Medical Research Center’s DNA prime / Ad boost vaccine, Sanaria Inc.'s radiation-attenuated whole sporozoite vaccine, and Radboud University Medical Centre’s and Sanaria's derived chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites vaccines. The aim of this Research Topic is to bring together researchers with expertise in malariology, immunology, hepatology, antigen discovery and vaccine development to provide a better understanding of the basic biology of Plasmodium in th
In Rockefeller “Internationalist”: The Man Who Misrules the World, which was first published in 1952, author Emanuel M. Josephson purports to expose the global conspiracy between the Rockefeller family and the Axis powers. Alleging that the Rockefeller Institute of Pacific Relations controlled the spy ring responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbor, the author goes to great lengths to describe the links between the Rockefellers and companies such as IG Farben, which supported Hitler’s concentration camps, as well as links between the Rockefeller family and Stalin in an effort to establish a global society. An interesting and important historical document.
Paulson shows how 18th-century English poets and artists confronted the decline of High Renaissance ideals in literary theory and aesthetics. The book is less a single extended argument, though, than a collection of brilliant insights and interpretations: Pope as Ovidian poet; Joseph Wright as Shandyan artist. Especially stimulating are the readings of Hogarth, Wright, Gainsborough, Stubbs, and Constable that comprise the second half of the book. Except for the deconstructionist jargon, the discussions are lucid and compelling. Highly recommended for libraries supporting graduate programs in literature or art.
- Author : Ida Minerva Tarbell
- Publisher : e-artnow
- Release Date : 2019-05-29
- Genre : Business & Economics
- Pages : 699
- ISBN : EAN:4057664187581
"The History of the Standard Oil Company" is an exposé about the Standard Oil Company, run by oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, the richest figure in American history. The inspiration behind this book was largely fueled by author's childhood experiences. Her father worked for Standard Oil and lived through what she called "hate, suspicion, and fear that engulfed the community." As a direct witness to the schemes and horizontal integration of John D. Rockefeller and his associates, Ida Tarbell began building the foundations of "The History of the Standard Oil Company" early on, using her own discontent as a starting point. This book inspired many other journalists to write about trusts and large businesses that attempted to gain monopolies in various industries.
- Author : Steve Weinberg
- Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
- Release Date : 2008-03-17
- Genre : History
- Pages : 320
- ISBN : 0393072533
How a female investigative journalist brought down the world’s greatest tycoon and broke up the Standard Oil monopoly. Long before the rise of mega-corporations like Wal-Mart and Microsoft, Standard Oil controlled the oil industry with a monopolistic force unprecedented in American business history. Undaunted by the ruthless power of its owner, John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937), a fearless and ambitious reporter named Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857–1944) confronted the company known simply as “The Trust.” Through her peerless fact gathering and devastating prose, Tarbell, a muckraking reporter at McClure’s magazine, pioneered the new practice of investigative journalism. Her shocking discoveries about Standard Oil and Rockefeller led, inexorably, to a dramatic confrontation during the opening decade of the twentieth century that culminated in the landmark 1911 Supreme Court antitrust decision breaking up the monopolies and forever altering the landscape of modern American industry. Based on extensive research in the Tarbell and Rockefeller archives, Taking on the Trust is a vivid and dramatic history of the Progressive Era with powerful resonance for the first decades of the twenty-first century.