Despite being an accepted construct in traffic and transport psychology, the precise nature of behavioural adaptation, including its causes and consequences, has not yet been established within the road safety community. A comprehensive collection of recent literature, Behavioural Adaptation and Road Safety: Theory, Evidence, and Action explores behavioural adaptation in road users. It examines behavioural adaptation within the context of historical and theoretical perspectives, and puts forth tangible—and practical—solutions that can effectively address adverse behavioural adaptation to road safety interventions before it occurs. Edited by Christina Rudin-Brown and Samantha Jamson, with chapters authored by leading road safety experts in driver psychology and behaviour, the book introduces the concept of behavioural adaptation and details its more relevant issues. It reviews the definition of behavioural adaptation that was put forward by the OECD in 1990 and then puts this definition through its paces, identifying where it may be lacking and how it might be improved. This sets the context for the remaining chapters which take the OECD definition as their starting points. The book discusses the various theories and models of behavioural adaptation and more general theories of driver behaviour developed during the last half century. It provides examples of the "evidence" for behavioural adaptation—instances in which behavioural adaptation arose as a consequence of the introduction of safety countermeasures. The book then focuses on the internal, "human" element and considers countermeasures that might be used to limit the development of behavioural adaptation in various road user groups. The book concludes with practical tools and methodologies to address behavioural adaptation in research and design, and to limit the potential negative effects before they happen. Supplying easy-to-understand, accessible solutions that can be implemented early on in a road saf
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- Author : OECD Scientific Expert Group
- Publisher : Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development ; Washington, D.C. : obtainable from OECD Publications and Information Centre
- Release Date : 1990
- Genre : Transportation
- Pages : 123
- ISBN : UCBK:C101135668
Contains summaries of the knowledge regarding the effects of 128 road safety measures. This title covers various areas of road safety including: traffic control; vehicle inspection; driver training; publicity campaigns; police enforcement; and, general policy instruments. It also covers topics such as post-accident care, and speed cameras.
This comprehensive 2nd edition covers the key issues that relate human behavior to traffic safety. In particular it covers the increasing roles that pedestrians and cyclists have in the traffic system; the role of infotainment in driver distraction; and the increasing role of driver assistance systems in changing the driver-vehicle interaction.
Many books focus on individual differences and how those relate to traffic safety such as accident proneness, gender differences, age, alcohol, and the effects of drugs. Others focus on the safety effects regarding the vehicle such as airbags, anti-lock brakes, navigation systems, intelligent cruise control and other new gadgets coming to the vehicle. Even though these topics are undoubtedly important for traffic safety, this book takes a unique approach as it focuses solely on the road environment. Designing Safe Road Systems provides the background for those who want to know more about the effects of road design on driving behaviour. It uses a systems approach to allow a better understanding of why and in what circumstances drivers may commit errors. This understanding will ultimately lead to road systems that prevent (fatal) errors from occurring. The book contains an overview of the current models and theories about human performance and human behaviour in traffic that are relevant for all those involved in designing safe road systems. The central theme of this book is how design principles can reduce the probability of an error while driving. The authors demonstrate how knowledge of human factors helps a road authority to better understand how road users behave. They argue that in many cases the design of the environment can be further adjusted to human capabilities, and that safety should be considered a system property to be built into the road system.
- Author : Carlo Cacciabue
- Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
- Release Date : 2010-04-28
- Genre : Computers
- Pages : 428
- ISBN : 9781846286186
This book presents a general overview of the various factors that contribute to modelling human behaviour in automotive environments. This long-awaited volume, written by world experts in the field, presents state-of-the-art research and case studies. It will be invaluable reading for professional practitioners graduate students, researchers and alike.
The Handbook of Traffic Psychology covers all key areas of research in this field including theory, applications, methodology and analyses, variables that affect traffic, driver problem behaviors, and countermeasures to reduce risk on roadways. Comprehensive in scope, the methodology section includes case-control studies, self-report instruments and methods, field methods and naturalistic observational techniques, instrumented vehicles and in-car recording techniques, modeling and simulation methods, in vivo methods, clinical assessment, and crash datasets and analyses. Experienced researchers will better understand what methods are most useful for what kinds of studies and students can better understand the myriad of techniques used in this discipline. Focuses specifically on traffic, as opposed to transport Covers all key areas of research in traffic psychology including theory, applications, methodology and analyses, variables that affect traffic, driver problem behaviors, and countermeasures to reduce the risk of variables and behavior Contents include how to conduct traffic research and how to analyze data Contributors come from more than 10 countries, including US, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Ireland, Switzerland, Mexico, Australia, Canada, Turkey, France, Finland, Norway, Israel, and South Africa
Rural roads constitute the most dangerous road category with regard to the number of fatal accidents. In order to increase traffic safety on rural roads it is necessary to take into account not only their inherent properties but also their effect on behaviour. Gert Weller develops a psychological model for driving on rural roads which is validated in three empirical steps: laboratory, simulator and driving experiments. His results provide insight into the possibilities of how driving behaviour on rural roads can be influenced and give practical guidance for the enhancement of rural road safety. The book is written for psychologists in the fields of traffic psychology and human factors research, traffic engineers, road planners as well as for political decision makers in traffic planning departments.
- Author : Nicholas Lloyd Forbes
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 2009
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 231
- ISBN : OCLC:757099413
This PhD investigates driver behavioural adaptation to in-vehicle navigation systems (IVNS). Behavioural adaptation is receiving an increasing amount of research attention in traffic psychology, but few studies have directly considered the concept in relation to IVNS. The thesis aims were addressed using a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Using two online surveys, over 1300 drivers (including over 1000 IVNS users) were sampled, to identify a range of positive, neutral and negative aspects of end-user behavioural adaptation to IVNS in terms of both safety and navigational efficiency. The first survey (N=450) aimed at drivers in general, showed that IVNS users believe they commit some common driving errors (e.g. misreading signs when leaving a roundabout) significantly less frequently than ordinary drivers who do not use these systems, but that they also feel they drive without fully attending to the road ahead significantly more frequently. The second survey (N=872) was aimed at IVNS users only, and further explored distracted driving. This survey found that the majority of IVNS users have interacted with their system while driving (e.g. to enter a destination), and that some do so frequently. It also showed that system reliability is a key issue affecting most current IVNS users, revealing that some drivers have followed inaccurate as well as illegal and potentially dangerous, system-generated route guidance information in a range of different contexts. A longitudinal diary study (N=20) then collected rich qualitative data from a sample of worker drivers who regularly used their IVNS in unfamiliar areas. The data collected illustrated the diverse contexts in which drivers experience aspects of behavioural adaptation to IVNS identified in the surveys. Both the IVNS user-survey and diary study also identified key demographic individual difference variables (most notably age and computing skill) that were associated with the extent to which driverÂ
- Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
- Publisher : National Academies Press
- Release Date : 2016-09-12
- Genre : Transportation
- Pages : 272
- ISBN : 9780309392525
There are approximately 4,000 fatalities in crashes involving trucks and buses in the United States each year. Though estimates are wide-ranging, possibly 10 to 20 percent of these crashes might have involved fatigued drivers. The stresses associated with their particular jobs (irregular schedules, etc.) and the lifestyle that many truck and bus drivers lead, puts them at substantial risk for insufficient sleep and for developing short- and long-term health problems. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Fatigue, Long-Term Health and Highway Safety assesses the state of knowledge about the relationship of such factors as hours of driving, hours on duty, and periods of rest to the fatigue experienced by truck and bus drivers while driving and the implications for the safe operation of their vehicles. This report evaluates the relationship of these factors to drivers' health over the longer term, and identifies improvements in data and research methods that can lead to better understanding in both areas.
At least 5 million people die each year from injuries, and about half the deaths in the 10-24 age group are accountable to them. This is a major health problem for which a number of strategies for prevention and control can be developed. This book presents a series of the plenary and state-of-the-art presentations from the 5th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Control. There is a focus on transportation, workplace, sport and leisure, and domestic sectors, and an exploration of the legal, medical, environmental, safety and governmental issues which play a part in the subject. Practitioners and researchers in a variety of activities, including epidemiology and public health, occupational health and safety, ergonomics and product design, medicine, criminology, engineering and physical sciences, and the behavioural sciences, should find this a useful and challenging work.
This volume gives an overview of the trends in Traffic and Transport Psychology. It reflects the considerable development of the most important factors for driving a road vehicle, and the variety of international research approaches. The first part contains basic approaches and integrated models as well as general theories and their implementation into Traffic and Transport Psychology. The second part deals with the driver, especially cognition, performance, social and differential effects and impairment. Important aspects are treated, such as speed perception, reaction times, interaction, risk acceptance, aggression and gender differences. Special chapters refer to performance and fatigue. The third part focuses on safety, driver support, selection and influencing drivers by enforcement, training and programs for the rehabilitation of traffic offenders. Classic ergonomic methods are discussed as well as modern telematic devices, or trends regarding driver-assessment. In the last part, current developments are presented in relation to better mobility and the protection of the environment. Questions are asked, such as whether we could reduce the use of cars, how travel behaviour can be modified or to what extent the use of alternatives to motor vehicles benefits safety as well as the environment. This work is not only important for psychologists. It should be read by all transport professionals interested in the application of psychology to traffic.
- Author : Canada. Transport Canada. Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate. Ergonomics Division
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 2003
- Genre : Adaptability (Psychology)
- Pages : 64
- ISBN : OCLC:61783289
Traffic psychology is a rapidly expanding and broad field within applied psychology with a considerable volume of research activities and a growing network of academic strands of enquiry. The discipline primarily focuses on the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying these behaviours, looking at issues such as cognition, distraction, fatigue, personality and social aspects, often delivering practical applications and educational interventions. Traffic psychology has been the focus of research for almost as long as the motor car has been in existence and was first recognised as a discipline in 1990 when the International Association of Applied Psychology formed Division 13: Traffic and Transportation Psychology. The benefits of understanding traffic psychology are being increasingly recognised by a whole host of organisations keen to improve road safety or minimise health and safety risks when travelling in vehicles. The objective of this volume is to describe and discuss recent advances in the study of traffic psychology, with a major focus on how the field contributes to the understanding of at-risk road-user behaviour. The intended readerships include road-safety researchers from a variety of different academic backgrounds, senior practitioners in the field including regulatory authorities, the private and public sector personnel, and vehicle manufacturers concerned with improving road safety.
ITF Research Reports Sharing Road Safety Developing an International Framework for Crash Modification Functions
- Author : International Transport Forum
- Publisher : OECD Publishing
- Release Date : 2012-11-08
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 132
- ISBN : 9789282103760
The report serves as a guide to how research results can be shared internationally. It provides checklist for systematic review of road safety studies and a framework for standardising methodology.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Human Mental Workload: Models and Applications, H-WORKLOAD 2019, held in Rome, Italy, in November 2019. The volume presents one keynote paper as well as 14 revised full papers, which were carefully reviewed and selected from 32 submissions. The papers are organized in two topical sections on models and applications.
- Author : Heidi Krömker
- Publisher : Springer Nature
- Release Date : 2020-07-10
- Genre : Computers
- Pages : 455
- ISBN : 9783030505233
This two-volume set LNCS 12212 and 12213 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on HCI in Mobility, Transport, and Automotive Systems, MobiTAS 2020, held as part of the 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2020, in Copenhagen, Denmark, in July, 2020.* A total of 1439 full papers and 238 posters have been carefully reviewed and accepted for publication in HCII 2020. The papers cover the entire field of human-computer interaction, addressing major advances in knowledge and effective use of computers in a variety of application areas. MobiTAS 2020 includes a total of 59 papers and they are organized in the following topical sections: Part I, Automated Driving and In-Vehicle Experience Design: UX topics in automated driving, and designing in-vehicle experiences. Part II, Driving Behavior, Urban and Smart Mobility: studies on driving behavior, and urban and smart mobility. *The conference was held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Occupational injury is a major and often preventable health problem in the work environment. Each year throughout the world millions are affected by traumatic occupational injuries and many thousands are actually killed in work-related incidents. This book provides a diverse and multi-faceted look at some of the themes directing late-1990s research and intervention within the area of occupational injury and safety. The book is divided into seven thematic parts with an introduction provided for each section. The topics include estimating the size of the problem, with discussions of different analytical techniques and their efficacy; the nature of causal agents the relative roles of risk, behaviour and organization processes; and the role played by compensation processes. Together the book brings into focus twenty chapters which address some of the issues of occupational injury and safety.